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Parts of Speech (Detailed Description : The Adjective)

Adjective - To add something extra to the meaning of Noun or Pronoun.
Definition : Words which are used to add something extra to the meaning of the Nouns or the Pronouns are called Adjectives.
The Adjectives :
(A) Use of Adjective
(B) Kinds of Adjective
(C) Formation of Adjective
(D) Comparison of Adjective
(E) How to change degree
(F) Correct use of some Adjectives

(A) Use of adjective
Uses
Attributive use : (Adjective + Noun) जब Adjective के बाद Noun use किया जाता है तो यह Attributive use होता है। जैसे-
There was no clear evidence.
We enjoyed a pleasant evening.
Predicative use : जब Adjective बिना Noun के use किया जाता हैं तो यह Predicative use होता है। जैसे-
The evidence was not clear.
The evening was pleasant

(B) Kinds of Adjective
1. Adjectives of Quality or Descriptive Adjectives - गुणवाचक विशेषण
Show the kind or quality of a Noun.
2. Adjectives of Quantity - मात्रावाचक विशेषण
Show the quantity of a Noun.
3. Adjectives of Number - संख्यावाचक विशेषण
Show the number or order of a Noun.
4. Demonstrative Adjectives - संकेतवाचक विशेषण
Point out a Noun
5. Proper Adjectives - व्यक्तिवाचक विशेषण
Formed from proper Nouns.
6. Interrogative Adjectives - प्रश्नवाचक विशेषण
Asking questions.
7. Emphasizing Adjectives - दबाववाचक विशेषण
Show strong feeling.
8. Possessive Adjectives - अधिकारवाचक विशेषण
Show possession

1. Adjectives of Quality or Descriptive Adjectives
ये Adjectives किसी Noun का Kind या Quality दर्शाते हैं।
Adjectives of quality ‘Of what kind ?’ या ‘What kind of ?’ (कैसा /कैसी) का जवाब होता हैं जैसे-
* It was a sad story - कैसी story ? - Sad.
* I saw a pretty girl. कैसी girl ? Pretty.

Here is a list of some qualitative Adjectives
active, warm, effective, angry, weak, expensive, anxious, wet, fair, appropriate, thin, familiar, attractive, young, famous, bad, wild, fast, beautiful, wide, Patient, big, fine, pleasant, bright, fresh, poor, busy, friendly, popular, calm, funny, powerful, careful, good, pretty, cheap, great, proud, clean, happy, quick, clear, hard, violent, close, heavy, rare, cold, high, reasonable, comfortable, hot, rich, common, important, rough, complex, kind, sad, cool, large, safe, curious, light, sensible, dangerous, long, serious, dark, loose, sharp, deep, loud, short, difficult, lovely, sick, dirty, low, significant, narrow, slow, sweet, nervous, small, new, soft, nice, stupid, special, steady, strange, successful, suitable, sure, tall, terrible, thick, tight, tiny, useful

2.Adjectives of Quantity
ये Adjectives ‘How much ?’ का जवाब होते हैं और यह दर्शातें हैं कि कोई चीज कितनी हैं या उसकी कितनी मात्रा है।
Here is a list of some Adjectives of quantity : Some, much, little, enough, all, no, any, great, half, sufficient, whole
Examples
The second thief claimed his half share of the booty. How much share? - Half.
You should take great care of your health. How much care ? Great.
She has no common sense. How much common sense-? - No.
उपरोक्त वाक्यों में Half, Great तथा ‘No’ How much का जवाब है।

3. Adjectives of Number
ये Adjectives ‘How many - ?’ (कितने -?) या ‘In what order - ?’ (किस क्रम में -? ) का जवाब होते हैं।
ये Adjective तीन प्रकार क होते हैं-
(i) Definite Numeral Adjective - ये Adjective exact Number दर्शाते हैं।
जैसे- One, two, three - etc. - ये Cardinal Number कहलाते हैं।
First, Second, Third - etc. - ये Ordinal Number कहलाते हैं।
(ii) Indefinite Numeral Adjectives - ये Adjectives exact Number नहीं दर्शाते हैं।
जैसे- All, No, Many, Few, Some, Any, Most, Certain, Several etc.
(iii) Distributive Numeral Adjectives - These Adjectives refer to each one of a number as Each, every, Either, Neither etc.
Examples
The hand has five fingers.
Most boys like football.
There were several mistakes in your note book.
Saturday is the last day of the week.
She has taught me many tricks.
Please give me some ripe mangoes.
All men must die.
There are no pictures in this book.
Each boy must take his turn.
Every word of his is false.
India expects every man to do his duty.
On either side is a narrow lane.
Neither blame is true.
Note:- कुछ Adjectives को Quantity तथा Number दोनों के लिए use किये जा सकते हैं। जैसे-
Quantity
I took some milk.
He has lost all his hope.
He has no sense.
She did not eat any rice.
She has enough money.
Number
Some students were absent.
All men must die.
There are no pictures in this book.
Are there any mango-trees here?
There were not enough spoons.

4. Demonstrative Adjectives
ये Adjective ‘which - ?’ का जवाब होते हैं तथा Noun को Point out करते हैं।
Near : Singular-This, Plural-These
Far : Singular-That, Plural-Those
Examples -
This boy is stronger than Rohan.
That boy is very diligent.
These mangoes are very sweet.
Those miscreants must be arrested.
Note : - यदि इन शब्दों के बाद Verb use की जाती हैं तो ये Pronoun बन जाते हैं। As,
This is my house. (Pronoun)
This house is mine. (Adjective)

5. Proper Adjectives
Proper Nouns से बनने वाले Adjective Proper Adjective होते हैं। As-
India - Indian
Holland - Dutch
America - American
Switzerland - Swiss
England - English
Poland - Polish
Japan - Japanese
China - Chinese
Milton - Miltonic
Shakespeare - Shakespearean
Nehru - Nehruvian
Gandhi - Gandhian etc.

6. Interrogative Adjective
Asking questions - कुछ Wh-Words जिन्हें Question पूछने के लिए काम में लिये जाते हैं। As, What, Which, Whose.
What type of student is he ?
Which way should we go ?
Whose house is this ?
Note :- इन्हीं words को यदि verb के साथ use किया जाता है तो ये Pronouns बन जाते हैं।
What is your name. ?
Which is your book ?
Whose is this house ?

7. Emphasizing Adjectives
ये Adjectives Strong feeling दर्शाते हैं।
own - खुद का/की, very - वही
I heard him with my own ears.
Mind your own business.
We should be our own master.
This is the very boy we want.
This is the very thief who stole jewellery.

8. POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES
ये Adjective possession बताते हैं।
my, our, your, his, her, their, its etc
इनके बाद हमेशा Noun use होता है। जैसे - my father, our house, your wife, his books, her brother, their school, its leg etc.

(C) FORMATION OF ADJECTIVES
(i) Many adjectives are formed from Nouns-
Noun – Adjective
Boy – Boyish
Courage – Courageous
Fool – Foolish
Glory – Glorious
Dirt – Dirty
Envy – Envious
Storm – Stormy
King – Kingly
Care – Careful
Gold – Golden
Hope – Hopeful
Shame – Shameless
Venture – Venturesome
Sense – Senseless
Trouble – Troublesome
Play – Playful
(ii) Some Adjectives are formed from Verbs-
Verb – Adjective
Tire – Tiresome
Cease – Ceaseless
Talk – Talkative
Move – Moveable
(iii) Some Adjectives are formed from other Adjectives
Adjective – Adjective
Tragic – Tragical
Black – Blackish
Whole – Wholesome
White – Whitish
Two – Twofold
Sick – Sickly
Classic – Classical

(D) COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES
Adjectives को compare करने के लिए Degree की आवश्यकता पड़ती हैं। ये Degrees तीन तरह से काम में ली जाती हैं।
Degrees
Positive Degree : as + Adj + as, not so + adj + as
Comparative Degree : Adj + er + than, more + adj + than, less + Adj + than
Superlative Degree : The + adj + est, The + most + adj, The + least + adj
Note :
(i) Adjective का मूल रूप Positive होता है। उसे Compare करने के लिए as - as/ so - as के साथ use किया जाता है। Negative में not के साथ ‘so’ use होता है´U ‘as’ नहीं।
जैसे- as beautiful as, not so beautiful as
(ii) Adjective के मूल रूप में ‘er’ लगने से वह Comparative Degree बन जाता है।
जैसे- brave सेे braver, large से larger तथा small से smaller etc.
(iii) जो Adjective ‘er’ से Comparative नहीं बन पाते हैं उनकी Comparative Degree more लगाकर बनती हैं। जैसे-
beautiful से more beautiful, difficult से more difficult तथा attractive से more attractive etc.
(iv) Adjectives ‘less’ से भी compare किये जा सकते हैं जब उन्हें कम के sense में compare करना हो। जैसे- Brave से less brave तथा beautiful से less beautiful etc.
Note : Comparative Degree के साथ ‘than’ हमेशा use किया जाता है।
(v) जो Adjective ‘er’ से comparative बनते हैं उनका Superlative, Adjective के मूल शब्द में ‘est’ लगाने से बनता है। तथा Superlative Degree के पहले हमेशा ‘the’ use किया जाता है। जैसे- brave से The bravest, large से The largest तथा small से The smallest etc.
(vi) जो Adjectives ‘more’ से Comparative बनते हैं उनका Superlative ‘most’ से बनता हैं। जैसे- more beautiful से The most beautiful, more difficult से The most difficult, more attractive से The most attractive etc.
(vii) जो Adjectives ‘Less’ से Comparative बनाये जाते हैं उनका Superlative ‘Least’ से बनता हैं। जैसे- Less beautiful से The least beautiful, less difficult से The least difficult, less attractive से The least attractive तथा Less brave से The least brave etc.

(E) HOW TO CHANGE DEGREES-STRUCTURES
Degrees को आपस में बदला जा सकता हैं लेकिन Degrees को बदलने से Sentence का meaning नहीं बदलना चाहिए।
Superlative Degree इसे तीन तरह से use किया जा सकता हैं।
(a) Complete sense : The superlative Degree – The best
(b) Partitive sense : One of the superlative Degree – One of the best
(c) Negative sense : not the superlative Degree – Not the best
(a) Superlative Degree- Complete sense - The best
(I) Sentence Structure - Superlative Degree
Noun is the Superlative Degree Noun
Shakespeare is the best English poet.
(II) Sentence Structure - Comparative Degree
Noun is Comparative Degree than any other Noun .
Shakespeare is better than any other English poet.
(III) Sentence Structure - Positive Degree
No other Noun is Positive Degree Noun.
No other English poet is as good as Shakespeare.
Important Points :
(i) प्रत्येक Superlative Degree से Comparative तथा Positive Degree बनाई जा सकती हैं।
(ii) Comparative Degree से Positive Degree बन जाती है लेकिन Superlative Degree बनना जरूरी नहीं होता।
(iii) Comparison जब दो में होता हैं तो Comparative से Superlative नहीं बनता है क्योंकि Superlative Degre बनने के लिए कम से कम तीन की आवश्यकता होती है यदि Comparative Sentence में ‘any other’ होता है तो उसकी Superlative Degree बनायी जा सकती है।
(iv) Positive Degree से Comparative Degree बन जाती है लेकिन Superlative Degree बनना जरूरी नहीं होता हैं। जब Positive Sentence में No other होता है तो इसका Superlative बन जाता है।
(v) Superlative या Comparative से Positive बनाने के लिए शब्दों (जिन शब्दों में Comparison होता है) को आपस में बदलना पड़ता हैं। जैसे- Shakespeare के स्थान पर English Poet तथा English poet के स्थान पर Shakespeare लिखा हैं।
(vi) इसी तरह से जब Positive से Comparative या Superlative बनाया जाता हैं तो शब्दों को आपस में बदलना पड़ता हैं। जैसे ऊपर किया गया हैं।

(b) Superlative Degree - Partitive sense - One of the best
(I) Sentence Structure - Superlative Degree
Noun is one of the Superlative Degree Nouns.
Shakespeare is one the best English poets.
(II) Sentence Structure - Comparative Degree
Noun is Comparative Degree than most other Nouns.
Shakespeare is better than most other English poets
(III) Sentence Structure - Positive Degree
Very few Nouns are Positive Degree Noun.
Very few English poets are as good as Shakespeare.

(c) Superlative Degree - Negative sense - Not the best.
(I) Sentence Structure - Superlative Degree
Noun is not the Superlative Degree Noun.
Shakespeare is not the best English poet.
(II) Sentence Structure - Comparative Degree
Noun is not Comparative Degree than some other Nouns
Shakespeare is not better than some other English poets.
(III) Sentence Structure - Positive Degree
Some Nouns are at least Positive Degree Noun.
Some English poets are at least as good as Shakespeare.
Change of Degree : जब Comparison दो में होता है।
(i) इस स्थिति में Superlative Degree नहीं बन सकती है।
(ii) Comparative Degree को वापस Comparative Degree में लिखा जा सकता है।
(iii) Positive Degree में change करने के लिए शब्दों का स्थान बदलना पड़ता हैं जिनका Comparison किया गया हैं तथा verb को Negative बनाना पड़ता हैं और Degree Positive/Comparative बनानी होती है। जैसे-
Kalidas is greater than Shakespeare

Comparative to Comparative
Shakespeare is not greater than Kalidas.
Shakespeare is less great than Kalidas.

Comparative to Positive Degree
Shakespeare is not so great as Kalidas.
It is easier to study than to teach (Comparative)
It is not easier to teach than to study (Comparative)
It is not so easy to teach as to study (Positive)

Some important points
(i) Superlative ( the + superlative ) Degree, ‘No other’ तथा ‘any other’ के बाद हमेशा Singular Noun use होता है। जैसे-
The most diligent boy.
No other boy.
any other boy.
(ii) One of, very few तथा most other के बाद हमेशा Plural Noun use होता हैं। जैसे-
One of the most diligent boys.
Very few boys.
Most other boys.
(iii) Positive Degree के साथ Much use नहीं होता है।
Rohan is much intelligent boy. (wrong)
Rohan is very intelligent boy. (correct)
(iv) Very को comparative Degree के साथ use नहीं किया जा सकता। जैसे-
My house is very bigger than yours. (wrong)
My house is much bigger than yours. (correct)
(v) Very तथा much को superlative Degree के साथ use किये जा सकते हैं। जैसे-
Rohan is the very best student of the class.
Shekhar is much the best boy of our school.
(vi) And के पहले तथा and के बाद Degree की एक जैसी form use होती हैं। जैसे-
Nancy is the best and tallest girl of the class.
Rohan is better and taller.
Indra is good and tall.
(vii) एक ही Sentence में Double Comparative तथा Double Superlative use नहीं किये जा सकते। जैसे-
Rohan is the most worst boy of the class.
इस sentence में ‘most’ की आवश्यकता नहीं है।
Rohan is more wiser than all other students
इस sentence में ‘more’ की आवश्यकता नहीं है।
But : Lesser ( less + er ) Double Comparative होते हुए भी use किया जा सकता हैं। जैसे -
Choose the lesser of the two evils.
(viii) Less (जो little का comparative है) Uncountable Noun के पहले use किया जाता हैं तथा fewer (जो few का comparative है) हमेशा Plural Noun के पहले use होता हैं जैसे-
No fewer than fifty miners were killed in the explosion.
No less than half of the work has been done.
(ix) Comparison हमेशा एक ही जैसे Items में हो सकता है अलग-अलग नहीं जैसे-
The population of London is greater than Kolkata.
इस sentence में London की Population का comparison Kolkata से हो रहा है जो ठीक नहीं है Comparison Kolkata की Population से होना चाहिए। जैसे-
The Population of London is greater than that of Kolkata.
(That of Kolkata = The Population of Kolkata.)
(x) जब एक ही Noun की दो Qualities को compare करते हैं तो ‘er’ comparative use नहीं हो सकता हैं। ऐसी स्थिति में ‘more’ use होता है।
Rohan is braver than prudent. (wrong)
Rohan is more brave than prudent. ( correct)

(F) Correct use of Some Adjectives -
(i) कुछ Comparative Adjective अपने साथ ‘Than’ की बजाय ‘To’ लेते हैं। जैसे- Superior, Inferior, senior, Junior, Prior, Anterior and Posterior,
As a novelist Jane Austen is superior to Mrs. Henry Wood.
Rohan is inferior to Raghav in wisdom.
The death of king Edward was prior to the great war.
My father is senior to your father.
His father’s death was posterior to his marriage.
(ii) कुछ Adjective जो दिखने में तो comparative होते हैं लेकिन Positive की तरह use होते हैं। जैसे - Former, latter, elder, hinder, upper, lower, inner, outer, utter etc.
Both the tiger and the leopard are cats the former animal is much larger than the latter.
The inner meaning of this letter is not clear.
The soldiers ran to defend the outer wall.
My elder sister is a doctor.
This person is an utter fool.
(iii) कुछ Latin comparative Adjective जिन्हें Positive Adjective की तरह use किया जाता है। जैसे- Interior, exterior, ulterior, major, minor.
The exterior portion of this building is very beautiful but the interior portion is not so .
He underwent a minor operation and later on it became major.
She has no ulterior motive in offering you help.
(iv) कुछ Adjective को Comparative नहीं बनाया जा सकता क्योंकि इनका meaning superlative होता हैं। जैसे- Unique, ideal, perfect, complete, universal, entire, extreme, chief, full, empty, incomplete, square, round, eternal, unanimous etc.
इसलिए इन Adjective को इस तरह से use नहीं कर सकते
most unique, quite unique, chiefest, fullest etc.
(v) Use of ‘some’ and ‘Any’
SOME -
(i) affirmative sentence में use होता है।
(ii) Interrogative sentence में use होता हैं जब उसमें offer या request होती है।
ANY -
(i) Negative and Interrogative sentences में use होता है।
(ii) Affirmative में ‘If’ के साथ use किया जाता है।
If you need any help, come to me.
He will buy some books from this shop.
I do not want to buy any books from this shop.
Will you buy any books from this shop ?
Will you have some ice-cream ? (offer)
Could you lend me some money ? ( request)
(vi) Use of ‘Each’ and ‘Every’
(i) Each तथा Every meaning में similar तथा use करने में अलग-अलग हैं।
(ii) Each दो people and things के लिए use किया जा सकता है लेकिन Every दो से ज्यादा के लिए use होता हैं।
(iii) Each तब use होता है जब किसी group के प्रत्येक member की importance होती हैं।
(iv) Every तब use होता है जब group की importance होती हैं group के प्रत्येक member की नहीं।
(v) इनके साथ हमेशा Singular countable Noun use होता हैं।
Each seat was covered with a white lace cover.
They rushed out to meet each visitor.
Leap year falls in every fourth year.
He came to see us every three days.
It rained every day during my holidays.
(vii) Use of ‘Little’ It show ‘Quantity’ (मात्रा)
Little : Negative sense (No) (Not much)
A Little : Positive sense (Some)
The little : Complete sense (in a particular case) (The whole)
Little
There is little hope of his recovery. (Negative Sense)
He has little appreciation of good poetry.
He showed little concern for his wife.
He showed little mercy to the thief.
A little
A little knowledge is a dangerous thing.
There is still a little hope of his arrival.
A little care is needed to handle that machine.
He could not buy a stereo because he lost a little money.
The Little-
The little information he had was not reliable at all.
The little knowledge of carpentry he has is very useful to him.
The little grains the farmers had destroyed in the flood.
Note :- little, a little तथा the little के बाद हमेशा Singular Noun use होता हैं।
(viii) Use of ‘few’- It shows ‘Number’ (संख्या)
Few : Negative sense (no) (not many)
A few : Positive sense (some)
The few : Complete sense (all)
Few
Few women can keep a secret.
Few men reach the age of one hundred years.
Few passengers escaped unhurt.
I am sorry I have few friends.
Few towns have such splendid trees.
A Few
In a few words he showed his gratitude to his friends.
It is a question of spending a few rupees.
When I met him a few years after he looked old and haggard.
A few of the members were present in the meeting.
A few days rest is all that is needed.
The Few
The few remarks that he made were very suggestive.
The few clothes they had were all tattered and torn.
The few short stories he has written are all of great excellence.
The few friends that I have are very intelligent and wise.
Note -
(i) Few के साथ हमेशा Plural Verb use होती है।
(ii) few, a few तथा the few के बाद हमेशा Plural Noun use होता हैं।
(iii) Few के साथ use होने वाला Noun यदि Defined होता है तो ‘The Few’ use होता है।
(ix) Use of ‘old’ old से दो Comparative तथा दो Superlative Degree बनती है। जैसे-
Old
Comparative – Superlative
Older – Oldest
Elder – Eldest
(i) older तथा oldest सभी Nouns के लिए use किये जा सकते हैं लेकिन elder तथा eldest को केवल Brother तथा sister के लिए use किया जाता है।
(ii) Elder के साथ ‘Than’ use नहीं होता है ‘To’ use हो सकता हैं।
1. He will inherit all the property after the death of his elder brother.
2. He is the eldest member of his family.
3. Noor is the oldest inhabitant of my village.
4. My brother is elder to me.
5. Rohan is the elder of the two brothers.
6. Who is the older of the two girls ?
7. The oldest mosque is near the railway station.
8. My brother is older than yours by two years.
9. My brother is elder to me by two years.
(x) Use of ‘Late’ इसके भी दो - Comparative तथा दो Superlative होते हैं। जैसे-
Late
Comparative – Superlative
later – latest
latter – last
(i) ‘Later’ तथा ‘Latest’ Time के लिए use होते हैं।
(ii) ‘Latter’ तथा ‘Last’ Position के लिए use होते हैं।
(iii) Later के साथ ‘Than’ use हो सकता है।
(iv) Latter के साथ ‘Than’ use नहीं होता है।
He came to office later than I.
I took admission to the college later than he did.
Between these two books the latter is the more interesting.
The Tempest is the last play of Shakespeare.
Of gold and radium the latter is the more precious.
Of the three tea, cocoa and coffee the last is the best drink.
What is the latest news from the neighbouring country?
Who is the last emperor of the Moghul Dynasty ?
Ours is the last house in the street.
The concluding and last chapter is carelessly written.
(xi) Use of ‘Farther’ and ‘Further’
Farther - for distance - Comparative of ‘far’
Further - for additional /extra
Delhi is farther from the Equator than Ooty.
I cannot walk any farther.
He walked off without further ceremony.
Do you have further information about the riots ?
(xii) Use of ‘Nearest’ and ‘Next’
Nearest - for distance - superlative of ‘Near’
Next - for position
The thief was taken to the nearest police station.
Sawan’s English Institute is next to the post office.
My uncle lives in the next house.
Who is the next candidate ? Please send him in.
The pillar-box is next to my house.
(xiii) Use for ‘Preferable’ यह अपने आप में Comparative है इसके पहले ‘more’ use नहीं हो सकता। उसके साथ ‘To’ use होता है ‘Than’ नहीं।
The scheme of my life is preferable to that of yours.
He has a proposal which he thinks preferable to that of any other person’s.
(xiv) कुछ क्रियाऐं ऐसी होती हैं जिनके बाद Adjective तथा Adverb दोनों ही use हो सकते हैं।
(i) जब Subject के बारे में Extra information होती हैं तो Adjective use होता है तथा
(ii) जब Verb के बारे में Extra information होती है तो Adverb use होता है। जैसे-
The flowers smell sweet ( not sweetly)
She looks beautiful. (not beautifully)
The statement seems untrue.(not untruly)
The soup tastes sour.
She feels sad.
उपरोक्त sentences में subject के बारे में बताया गया हैं।
The ship appeared suddenly (for appeared)
The decision appears unjust (for decision)
He spoke angrily. (for spoke)
He looked angry (for He)
ऐसी ही कुछ Verbs – smell, look, appear, seem, taste, feel, is, are, am, was, were, etc.
(xv) Use of ‘Cardinal’ and ‘Ordinal’ Adjectives
जब ये दोनों Adjectives एक साथ use होते हैं तो पहले Ordinal use होता है फिर Cardinal जैसे -
The first three chapters of this book are rather dull. (Not-The three first chapters)
The first two boys were given gold medals. (Not - The two first boys)
(xvi) Use of ‘Verbal’ and ‘Oral’.
‘Verbal’ means - Pertaining to words - शाब्दिक
‘ Oral’ means - not written - मौखिक
Hence the opposite of ‘Written’ is ‘Oral’ and ‘Verbal’ is ‘Non-Verbal’.
Her written statement is different in several important points from her oral message to the doctor.
There were few verbal differences in the two manuscripts. (differences in words)
Was your statement oral or written ?

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