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Parts of Speech (Detailed Description : The Pronoun)

Definition : Words which are used in place of nouns are known as Pronouns.
Kinds of Pronoun : There are nine kinds of Pronoun.
1. Personal Pronouns - व्यक्तितगत सर्वनाम
2. Possessive Pronouns - अधिकारवाचक सर्वनाम
3. Reflexive Pronouns - निजवाचक सर्वनाम
4. Reciprocal Pronouns - परस्परवाचक सर्वनाम
5. Demonstrative Pronouns - संकेतवाचक सर्वनाम
6. Indefinite Pronouns -अनिश्चयवाचक सर्वनाम
7. Relative Pronouns - संबंधवाचक सर्वनाम
8. Distributive Pronouns - बंटनवाचक सर्वनाम
9. Interrogative Pronouns - प्रश्नवाचक सर्वनाम
1. Personal Pronouns : Referring to people and things.
There are two sets of Personal Pronouns :
(a) Subject Pronouns
(b) Object Pronouns

(a) Subject Pronouns निम्नलिखित होते हैं-
I Person : Singular – I (मैं, मैंने), Plural – We (हम, हमने)
II Person : Singular – You (आप, आपने), Plural – You (आप, आपने)
III Person : Singular – He, She (वह, उसने), It (यह, इसने), Plural – They (वे, उन्होंने)
Important Points About Subject Pronouns
(i) Subject Pronouns हमेशा Nominative Case में होते हैं।
(ii) ‘I’ को हमेशा Capital Letter में लिखा जाता है।
(iii) ‘One’ को Personal Pronouns के रूप में use किया जा सकता है।
(iv) Subject pronouns हमेशा verb के पहले use होते हैं।
(b) Object pronouns निम्नलिखित होते हैं-
I Person : Singular – Me (मुझे, मुझको), Plural – Us (हमें, हमको)
II Person : Singular – You (आपको), Plural – You (आपको)
III Person : Singular – Him, Her (उसे, उसको), It (इसे, उसको), Plural – Them (उन्हें, उनको)
Important Points About Object Pronouns
(i) Object Pronouns हमेशा Objective Case में होते हैं।
(ii) Object Pronouns हमेशा Verb तथा Preposition के बाद use होते है।
(iii) ‘You’ तथा ‘It’ Subject तथा Object दोनों ही तरह से use हो जाते हैं।
As,
I help him with money.
He helps me with money.
We help them with money.
They help us with money.
She helps you with money.
You help her with money.
I am a thinker.
We are very good friends.
You are diligent and sincere.
He is my neighbour.
She is my girl friend.
They are soldiers.

USES OF ‘IT’
‘It’ – It refers to
a thing (वस्तु)
a place (स्थान)
an organization (संस्था)
something abstract (अमूर्त)
a situation (स्थिति)
the time (समय)
the date (तारीख)
the weather (मौसम)
Subject Pronoun पर pressure डालने के लिए (Impersonal subject)
Infinitive (to I verb)
As,
I bought a novel by Premchand. It is very interesting (Thing)
I have visited Jaipur many times. It is really interesting (Place)
The B.B.C. started broadcasting in 1937. It is an international news agency. (Organization)
Honesty is the best policy and I like It. (Abstract)
It is very peaceful here. (Situation)
It is 9 o’clock. (Time)
It is June 15th. (Date)
It is very hot outside. (Weather)
It is wrong to tell a lie. (Infinitive)
Subject Pronouns पर pressure डालने के लिए ‘It’ को Subject बनाया जाता है। जैसे-
It was you who did this work.
It is I who am your friend.
It is she whom you love a lot.
It is he who helps you again and again.
‘One’ को Personal Pronouns के रूप में use किया जा सकता है-
(i) ‘One’ हमेशा singular होता है।
(ii) ‘One’ का Plural ‘ones’ होता है।
(iii) ‘One’ का Possessive ‘One’s’ होता है।
(iv) ‘One’ का Reflexive ‘Oneself’ होता है।
As,
One should think of the practical side of things.
Could I have a bigger one please ?
One should do one’s duty.
One must help oneself to get the help of God.
Which car do you like ? this one or that one.
Which cars do you like ? These ones or those ones.

2. Possessive Pronouns–Showing Possession
There are two table showing Possession :
(a) Possessive Adjectives or Determiners
(b) Possessive Pronouns
(a) Possessive Adjectives or Determiners :
2. Possessive Pronouns–Showing Possession
There are two table showing Possession :
(a) Possessive Adjectives or Determiners
(b) Possessive Pronouns
(a) Possessive Adjectives or Determiners :–
I Person : Singular – my (मेरा, मेरी), Plural – our (हमारा, हमारी)
II Person : Singular – your (आपका, आपकी), Plural – your (आपका, आपकी)
III Person : Singular – his, her (उसका, उसकी), its (इसका, इसकी), Plural – their (उनका, उनकी)

Important Points
(i) ‘One’ का Possessive Adjective या Determiner ‘One’s’ होता है।
(ii) Possessive Adjectives या Determiners कभी भी अकेले use नहीं होते हैं, इनके बाद हमेशा Noun use होता है।
As,
My father, your teacher, our classroom, his wife, her husband, their farm house, its leg, one’s country etc.
(iii) Possessive Adjective या Determiners को Subject तथा Object दोनों ही तरह से use किया जा सकता है।
As,
My father is a businessman. (Subject)
I love my father. (Object)
(a) Possessive Pronouns
I Person : Singular – mine, Plural – ours
II Person : Singular – yours, Plural – yours
III Person : Singular – his, her, Plural – Theirs
Important Points
(i) Possessive Pronouns के साथ Noun use नहीं होता है क्योंकि इनमें Noun पहले से छिपा रहता है।
(ii) ‘It’ से Possessive Pronoun नहीं बनता।

Relationship between Possessive Adjectives and Possessive Pronouns :
Possessive Adjective – Possessive Pronoun
My + Noun – Mine
Our + Noun – Ours
Your + Noun – Yours
His + Noun – His
Her + Noun – Hers
Their + Noun – Theirs
Important Points
(i) Possessive Adjectives तथा Possessive Pronouns को आपस में अदल-बदल कर use किया जा सकता है।
My farm house is much bigger than your farmhouse.
or My farm house is much bigger than yours.
His wife is less beautiful than my wife.
or His wife is less beautiful than mine.
It is not my fault, it is their fault.
or It is not my fault, it is theirs.
There is not much difference between your statement and our statement.
or There is not much difference between your statement and ours.
His marks are lower than her marks.
or His marks are lower than hers.
(ii) Possessive Adjective तथा Possessive Pronouns को जब 'of' के बाद use किया जाता है तो उनके अर्थ अलग-अलग होते हैं।
As,
She is an old friend of mine.
She is an old friend of my friend.
A student of yours came to me last night.
A student of your student came to me last night.

3. Reflexive Pronouns–Referring back to the Subject.
Here is a table of Reflexive Pronouns
I Person : Singular – Myself, Plural – Ourselves
II Person : Singular – Yourself, Plural – Yourselves
III Person : Singular – Herself, Himself, Itself, Plural – Themselves

Important Points
(i) One का Reflexive Pronoun “Oneself’ होता है।
As, One should be loyal to oneself.
(ii) Reflexive Pronoun हमेशा Subject के अनुसार use होता है।
(iii) Reflexive Pronoun हमेशा Subject का Object बनता है।
As,
I forced myself to tell a lie.
We should think of ourselves as active members of our society.
He was ashamed of himself.
We are sure history repeats itself.
Nancy stared at herself in the mirror.
You are not a punctual person yourself.
All of them shook hands and introduced themselves.
(iv) ‘You’ जब singular होता है तो उसका Reflexive ‘Yourself’ बनता है तथा जब Plural होता है तो इसका Reflexive ‘Yourselves’ होता है।
As,
Teach yourself English.
Rohit, take care of yourself.
Did you solve this yourself ?
Do you want to buy yourself a watch.
Quit yourself like a man.
Quit yourselves like men.
You and she have to solve your problems yourselves.
There are many questions you have to ask yourselves.
(v) निम्ननलिखित क्रियाओं के बाद Reflexive Pronoun use होता है।
As,
Absent (से अनुपस्थित रहना), Apply (लगाना), Acquit (पेश करना), Avail (लाभ उठाना), Avoid (से बचकर रहना), Avenge (बदला लेना), Resign (स्वीकार करना), Enjoy (आनंद मनाना), Exert (में लगना), Express (अभिव्यक्त करना), Pride (पर गर्व करना), Set (लगाना) etc.
I will avail myself of every opportunity.
He absented himself from school.
He acuitted himself nobly in the battle.
The victims resigned themselves to their fate.
She applied herself to her studies.
She exerted herself to the uttermost.
We enjoyed ourselves at the party.
Mr. Jateen expressed himself very forcibly.
Shruti prides herself on beauty.
He avenged himself upon his enemies.
She set herself to accomplish her task.
I will avoid myself of your kind advice.

4. Reciprocal Pronouns–Showing that two people do the same thing.
There are two Reciprocal Pronouns
(a) Each other
(b) One another
(a) Each Other–एक-दूसरे को या आपस में
(i) Each other केवल दो के लिए use होता है।
(ii) इसका Possessive case ‘each other’s’ होता है।
As,
We help each other a lot.
You and she understand each other.
They used to send each other gifts.
Jesica and Nancy are jealous of each other.
I think you will enjoy each other’s company.
(b) One another–एक-दूसरे को या आपस में
(i) One another दो से ज्यादा के लिए use होता है।
(ii) इसका Possessive case ‘one another’s’ होता है।
The lights were moving towards one another.
I heard the stags answering one another.
Donkeys spend a great deal of time grooming one another’s fur.
5. Demonstrative Pronouns : Referring to a particular person or thing.
Here is a list of Demonstration Pronouns :
Near : Singular – This, Plural – These
Far : Singular – That, Plural – Those
Important Points
(i) Demonstrative Pronouns ‘Subject’ तथा ‘Object’ दोनों ही बन सकते हैं।
(ii) This तथा That ‘Singular’ होते हैं, These तथा Those ‘Plural’ होते हैं।
(iii) This तथा These नजदीकी को दर्शाते हैं।
(iv) That तथा Those दूरी को दर्शाते हैं।
As,
This is a list of articles to be purchased.
That looks great.
Is this your husband ?
This is Mr. and Mrs. Vaishnav. (for introduction)
Was that Nischaya on the phone ?
These are no ordinary people.
Those were days of happiness.
This is my farmhouse.
That is my brother’s farmhouse.
These are my cattle.
Those are their cattle.
Do you like this ?
Note : इन शब्दों के साथ यदि कोई Noun use हो जाता है तो ये शब्द Adjective बन जाते हैं।
As,
This farmhouse is mine.
That book is yours.
These cattle are hers.
Those books are mine.
6. Indefinite Pronouns : Referring to people and things in a general way.
Here is a list of Indefinite Pronouns :
Anybody (कोई भी)
Anyone (कोई भी)
Anything (कुछ भी)
Everybody (हर कोई)
Everyone (हर कोई)
Everything (सबकुछ)
Nobody (कोई नहीं)
No-one (कोई नहीं)
Nothing (कुछ नहीं)
Somebody (कोई)
Someone (कोई)
Something (कुछ)
Important Points
(i) Indefinite Pronouns हमेशा Singular होते हैं इसलिए इनके साथ Singular Verb use होती हैं।
As,
Everything is possible in the world.
Nobody is perfect in the world.
Everybody wants to be rich.
Something is better than nothing.
(ii) ‘body’ तथा ‘one’ से बने Pronouns केवल Person के लिए use होते हैं तथा इनको एक-दूसरे की जगह पर use किया जा सकता है।
As,
Somebody knocked at the door when I was sleeping.
Someone knocked at the door when I was sleeping.
(iii) ‘thing’ से बने Pronouns केवल वस्तु के लिए ही use होते है।
As,
Nothing is impossible in the world.
I know everything about you.
She spoke nothing for a while.
(iv) ‘Any’ से बने Pronouns को Interrogative तथा Negative sentences में use किया जाता है।
As,
He cannot help anybody.
I did not see anyone there.
I cannot kill anybody or anyone.
You haven’t told me anything yet.
Can I do anything ?
Is anybody agree with you ?
Could you call me on this number if anything unusual happens ?
(v) ‘body’ तथा ‘one’ से बनने वाले Pronouns के लिए use होने वाला Personal Pronouns हमेशा Singular तथा Male होता हैं। इनके लिए Female Pronouns कभी भी use नहीं होता है।
As,
Everybody has his dreams.
Everyone is free to determine his goals.
There is nobody that has not lost his friend.
Somebody shouted in the crowd and other voices joined him.
Everybody should do his work himself.
(vi) Indefinite Pronouns (body तथा one से बनने वाले) जब किसी group को दर्शाता है तो इसके लिए हमेशा Plural Personal एवं III Person Pronoun use होता है।
As,
She has not given anyone their prizes yet.
Note : उपरोक्त वाक्य में Anyone एक group के लिए use हुआ हैं इसलिए इसके लिए their use हुआ है।
Ask anybody, they will tell you.
Everybody was enjoying themselves at the party.
Everyone put their pens down when I entered the class.
Nobody was at fault but she chided them.
(vii) Indefinite Pronouns (body तथा one से बनने वाले) को Possessive बनाने के लिए इसके साथ (’s) Apostrophe use की जा सकती है।
As,
She was given a room in somebody’s house.
That is no-one’s business.
She cannot defend anybody’s rights.

Some Other Indefinite Pronouns :
All, Another, any, Both, Enough, Few, Many, Some, Others, None
As,
All were drowned in the river.
I saw one girl whispering to another.
Some are born great and some become great.
Discuss it with your female secretary, if you have any.
None was allowed to get in without permission.
Few escaped unhurt.
Do good to others.
Many were called but few were chosen.
Both have completed their work before time.
Enough is as good as a feast.

One of, None of, Some of, All of, Many of, Both of, Most of, Few of, Several of, A few of
Important Points :
(i) इन शब्दों के साथ हमेशा Plural Noun या Pronoun use होता है।
(ii) One of के साथ Singular verb use होती है तथा बाकी के लिए Plural Verbs use होती है।
As,
One of the students has stolen my book.
None of his poems are worth reading.
Some of my best friends are officers.
All of us were ready to compromise.
I am sure both of you agree with me.
Most of the population have left coastal areas.
Few of these organization survive for long.
Several of his best books are based on Indian culture.
Only a few of the attackers were armed.
Many of them were children who were killed in tsunami disaster.
7. Relative Pronouns : Joining clauses together.
Definition : Pronouns which are used to join clauses together are known as Relative Pronouns.
Important Points about Relative Pronoun
(i) ऐसे Pronouns जो किसी Noun/Pronoun के साथ use होते हैं, Relative Pronoun कहलाते हैं।
(ii) Relative Pronouns के तुरंत पहले जो Noun या Pronoun use होते हैं वे Antecedent (पूर्व पद) कहलाते हैं।
(iii) यदि Relative Pronouns Subject होता है तो Verb का Agreement antecedent के अनुसार होता है।
(iv) Relative Pronoun के Number तथा Gender नहीं होते क्योंकि इनको दोनों ही तरह से use किया जा सकता है।
(v) Relative Pronouns ‘Pronoun’ होने के साथ-साथ Conjunction भी होते हैं क्योंकि ये वाक्यों को जोड़ते हैं।
This is the man who has helped me.
Explanation :
(i) उपरोक्त वाक्य में ‘who’ Relative Pronoun है क्योंकि यह Noun (the man) के साथ use हुआ है।
(ii) उपरोक्त वाक्य में ‘the man’ Antecedent है क्योंकि यह Relative Pronoun के तुरंत पहले use हुआ है।
(iii) उपरोक्त वाक्य में ‘who’ Subject है लेकिन Verb ‘the man’ के अनुसार use हुई है क्योंकि ‘the man’ Antecedent है।
(iv) Relative Pronoun का Number तथा Gender Antecedent के अनुसार होता है इसलिए उपरोक्त वाक्य में ‘who’ Singular तथा Male है।
(v) उपरोक्त वाक्य में ‘who’ Relative Pronoun के साथ-साथ Conjunction भी है क्योंकि यह दो वाक्यों को Link कर रहा है।
Here is a list of Relative Pronouns with their Hindi Meaning : Who–जो/जिसने, Whom–जिसको/जिसे, Whose–जिसका/जिसकी, Which–जो, That–जो, Where–जहाँ, When–जब, What–जो

Uses of Relative Pronouns
1.Who–जो/जिसने
Important Points
(i) Who हमेशा Subject के रूप में use होता है।
(ii) Who केवल Person के लिए use होता है।
(iii) Who को use करने के लिए ‘Subject’ Noun तथा Pronoun को हटाया जाता है।
As,
Who : I, We, He, She, You, They, Noun (Subject)
Examples :
(i) It is I. I am your teacher.
It is I who am your teacher.
Note : उपरोक्त वाक्य में ‘I’ को हटाकर ‘who’ लगाया गया है तथा ‘Verb’ Antecedent के अनुसार लगाई गई है।
(ii) It is we. We work very hard.
It is we who work very hard.
(iii) It was you. You stole my watch last night.
It was you who stole my watch last night.
(iv) A student came running up. He heard me calling.
A student who heard me calling came running up.
(v) This is the girl. She tells a lie.
This is the girl who tells a lie.
(vi) They should not throw stones. They live in glass houses.
They who live in glass houses should not throw stones.
(vii) I met the soldier. The soldier was coming from the battle field.
I met the soldier who was coming from the battle field.

2.Whom–जिसको/जिसे
Important Points
(i) Whom हमेशा object के रूप में use होता है।
(ii) Whom भी हमेशा person के लिए use होता है।
(iii) Whom को use करने के लिए ‘Object’ Noun तथा Pronoun को हटाया जाता है।
As,
Whom : Me, Us, You, Him, Her, Them, Noun (Object)
Examples :
(i) I am their teacher. They like me very much.
I am their teacher whom they like very much.
Note : उपरोक्त वाक्य में ‘me’ को हटाकर whom लगाया गया है।
(ii) We are their teacher. They like us a lot.
We are their teacher whom they like a lot.
(iii) He is a student. You can trust him.
He is a student whom you can trust.
(iv) You are the man. The police wanted to arrest you.
You are the man whom the police wanted to arrest.
(v) The woman died. I met her yesterday.
The woman whom I met yesterday died.
(vi) They ladies have arrived. We were awaiting them.
The ladies whom we were awaiting have arrived.
(vii) This is the soldier. I met the soldier yesterday.
This is the soldier whom I met yesterday.

3.Whose–जिसका/जिसकी
Important Points
(i) Whose हमेशा Possession बताता है।
(ii) Whose Subject तथा Object दोनों ही बन सकता है।
(iii) Whose को use करने के लिए Possessive Adjective को हटाना पड़ता है
(iv) Whose के तुरंत बाद हमेशा Noun use होता है।
Whose : My, Our, Your, His, Her, Its, Their, Noun’s
Examples :
(i) I am the mechanic. My son is an M.B.B.S.
I am the mechanic whose son is an M.B.B.S.
Note : उपरोक्त वाक्य में My को हटाकर Whose लगाया गया है।
(ii) We are the students. Our father was given the President’s Award.
We are the students whose father was given the President’s Award.
(iii) The woman was very sad. Her child was hurt.
The woman whose child was hurt was very sad.
(iv) This is the man. His wife is an engineer.
This is the man whose wife is an engineer.
(v) The horse fell down. The horse’s leg was broken.
The horse whose leg was broken fell down.
(vi) We met the sailors. Their ship was wrecked.
We met the sailors whose ship was wrecked.
(vii) Do you know the soldier ? The soldier’s arm was broken.
Do you knwo the soldier whose arm was broken ?

4.Which–जो
Important Points
(i) Which हमेशा things तथा animals के लिए use किया जाता है।
(ii) Which Subject तथा Object दोनों ही बन सकता है।
Examples :
(i) The time is lost. The time is lost forever.
The time which is lost is lost forever.
(ii) The horse is an Arab. I have bought it.
The horse which I have bought is an Arab.
(iii) The question was not difficult. I asked the question.
They question which I asked was not difficult.

5.That–जो
Important Points
(i) That people तथा things दोनों के लिए use हो जाता है।
(ii) That भी Subject तथा Object बन सकता है।
(iii) Which तथा That को एक-दूसरे की जगह पर use किया जा सकता है जब ये किसी Thing के लिए use हुए होते हैं।
Examples :
(i) These are the games. Politicians play the games.
These are the games that politicians play.
(ii) The gift is very costly. You gave me the gift.
The gift that you gave me is very costly.

6.What–जो
Important Points
(i)‘What’ Nominal Relative Pronoun होता है क्योंकि इसके साथ Antecedent use नहीं होता है।
(ii)‘What’ Subject तथा Object दोनों ही बन सकता है।
(iii)‘What’ केवल things के sense में use होता है।
Examples :
(i) What is done cannot be undone.
(ii) What he said was perfectly true.
(iii) What I really need is a nice cup of tea.
(iv) They did not like what she wrote.
(v) We must endure what we cannot cure.
(vi) What has happened is not clear.
(vii) Be attentive to what she is going to say.
(viii) What pleases you will please me.

7.Where–जहाँ
Important Points
(i) Where के पहले यदि Place के रूप में कोई Antecedent (Place, Street, Colony, City etc.) use हुआ है तब Relative Pronoun होता है।
As,
(i) This is the place where I was born.
(ii) This is the street where my grandmother lives.
(iii) This is the room where I take a rest.
Note : उपरोक्त वाक्यों में Where Relative Pronoun है।

8.When–जब
Important Points
(i) When के पहले यदि Time के रूप में कोई Antecedent (Time, Year, Day, Month etc.) use हुआ है तब ‘When’ Relative Pronoun होता है।
As,
(i) This is the year when the profits should start.
(ii) Do you remember the day when he was born ?
(iii) What was the time when he met you ?
Note : उपरोक्त वाक्यों में When Relative Pronoun के रूप में use हुआ है।

9. कुछ Conditions ऐसी होती हैं जिनमें Relative Pronoun ‘that’ use होता है who तथा which नहीं।
(i) Superlative Degree के बाद
She is one of the best mothers that I have ever met.
He is the most eloquent speaker that we have ever heard.
This is the best that I can do.
(ii) all, same, only, any, none तथा nothing के बाद
All that glitters is not gold.
I played with the same bat that you did.
There is nothing that you want to do.
Is there anything that you want to do ?
Man is the only animal that can smile and laugh.
None of his poems that I have read are worth reading.
(iii) Interrogative Pronouns ‘who’ तथा ‘what’ के बाद
Who was the man that abused you ?
Who am I that I should object ?
What is the thing that troubles you so much ?
What is it that she likes most ?
(iv) Antecedent में यदि दो शब्द हो एक Person तथा दूसरा Animal या Thing तो Relative Pronoun ‘that’ use होता है।
The girl and her dog that had trespassed on the club premises were turned out.
I saw a lady and a dog that were entering the garden.

8. Distributive Pronouns : Referring to person or thing one at a time.
Here is a list of Distributive Pronouns :
Each of–प्रत्येक, Either of–दोनों में से प्रत्येक, Neither of–दोनों में से कोई नहीं, Every one of–में से प्रत्येक
Important Points :
(i) Distributive Pronouns हमेशा Singular होते हैं।
(ii) इनके साथ हमेशा Singular Verb use होती है।
(iii) Either तथा Neither सिर्फ दो के Sense में use होते हैं।
As,
(i) Each of the girls dances well.
(ii) Either of these roads leads to the bus stop.
(iii) Either of these girls is eligible for this post.
(iv) Neither of these girls is eligible for this post.
(v) I bought each of these books for eighty rupees.
(vi) Every one of the students is ready to do this work.

9. Interrogative Pronouns : Asking questions.
Here is a list of Interrogative Pronouns : Who, Whom, Whose, Which, What
Important Points :
(i) इन Wh-words को Noun या Pronoun के स्थान पर use किया जा सकता है इसलिए ये Pronouns कहलाते हैं।
(ii) Interrogative Pronouns Subject तथा Object दोनों ही बन सकते हैं।

Uses of Interrogative Pronouns
1. Who – कौन/किसने
Important Points
(i) Who हमेशा Person के लिए use होता है।
(ii) Who हमेशा Subject होता है।
(iii) Who से व्यक्ति का नाम भी मालूम पड़ता है।
As,
Who is there ?
Who are you ?
Who gave you the gift ?
Who spoke ?
Who made the top score ?
Who is knocking at the door ?
Who will do this work ?
Who says so ?
Note : Who हमेशा Subject होता है इसलिए इसके तुरंत बाद Verb use होती है।
(iv) Who का Sentence Structure निम्नलिखित होता है-
Who + Verb + ..............?
As,
Who is your friend ?
Who is standing there ?
Who helped you ?

2.Whom–किसे/किसको
Important Points
(i) Whom भी हमेशा Person के लिए use होता है।
(ii) Whom हमेशा Object होता है।
As,
Whom do you like ?
Whom did you meet ?
Whom will she teach ?
Whom has he beaten ?
Whom is he teaching ?
(iii) Whom का Sentence Structure निश्वनलिखित होता है-
Whom + Helping Verb + Subject + Verb + ..............?
As,
Whom does she love ?
Whom have you seen ?
(iii) Preposition के तुरंत बाद Whom use होता है लेकिन यदि Preposition को Sentence के अंत में use करते है तो Whom के स्थान पर Who use होता है।
As,
(i) For whom did you buy this book ?
Who did you buy this book for ?
(ii) To whom did you give my umbrella ?
Who did you give my umbrella to ?
(iii) At whom are you looking ?
Who are you looking at ?
(iv) With whom are you going to the market ?
Who are you going to the market with ?

3.Whose–किसका/किसकी
Important Points
(i) Whose हमेशा Possession दर्शाता है।
(ii) Whose Person के लिए use होता है।
As,
Whose is this house ?
Whose is it ?
Whose are these cattle ?
(iii) Whose का Sentence Structure निम्नलिखित होता है-
Whose + be + ..............?

4.Which–कौनसा/कौनसी
Important Points
(i) ‘Which’ Persons तथा Things दोनों के लिए use किया जा सकता है।
(ii) ‘Which’ Selection दर्शाता है।
(iii) Which Subject तथा Object दोनों बन सकता है।
As,
Which is your wife ?
Which are your children ?
Which of the boys helped him ?
Which of you has done this ?
Which of the pictures do you want to buy ?
Which will you take ?
(iv) Which के Sentence Structure निम्न होते है-
Which जब Subject होता है-
Which + Verb + ..............?
As,
Which is your car ?
Which जब Object होता है-
Which + Helping Verb + Subject + Verb + ..............?
As,
Which will she take ?
Which of Noun/Pronoun+ Helping Verb + Subject + Verb + ..............?
As,
Which of the cities do you like most ?

5.What–क्या
Important Points
(i) What केवल things के लिए use होता है।
(ii) ‘What’ Subject तथा Object दोनों ही बन सकता है।
(iii) What को नाम (Name) पूछने के लिए भी use में लिया जाता है।
(iv) What को Profession या Employment के लिए भी use किया जा सकता है।
As,
What have you found ?
What does she want ?
What did he say ?
What is sweeter than honey ?
What are you ?
What is she ?
What is your name ?
(v) What के Sentence Structure निम्न होते है-
What जब Subject होता है-
What + Verb + ..............?
As,
What is stronger than the pen ?
What was he ?
What pleases you ?
What surprised her ?
What जब Object होता है-
What + Helping Verb + Subject + Verb + ..............?
What do you like ?
What has she done ?

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