Phrasal Verbs

There are many common verbs in English followed by an adverbial or a prepositional particle such as : make up, pick up, put up etc. Sometimes the two parts of the phrasal verbs are separated e.g.
1. Put it on;
2. She is always making herself up;
3. He plays this record over and over.
They are usually not divided, e.g.
1. He gave up drinking last year.
2.She put on a new dress.
3. They had to put off the meeting.
Phrasal Verbs वे Verbs हैं जिनका प्रयोग अकेले न होकर किसी Preposition या Adverb के साथ होता है। Phrasal Verbs दो प्रकार की होती हैं :
1. Verbs followed by Prepositions जैसे : come round, go on आदि।
2. Verbs followed by Adverbial Particles जैसे : take after, make up आदि।
अधिकतर Phrasal Verbs के अलग-अलग हिस्सों का कोई अर्थ नहीं निकलता, किन्तु उन्हें एक साथ जोड़ने पर नया अर्थ निकलता है। उदाहरणार्थ : take after का अर्थ resemble है। यह अर्थ अकेले take या अकेले after से नहीं निकलता।
Commonly used phrasal verbs are formed by using a preposition (or adverbial particle) with the following verbs :
break, carry, come, fall, get, give, go, hold, keep, lay, look, make, put, run, stand, take, turn etc.
Study the following examples :
1. Break
1. Break down (Collapse खराब होना )
The engine of my car broke down, but I managed to repair it myself.
2. Break forth (burst out फूट पड़ना)
He broke forth into shouts of gladness.
The prisoner broke forth into loud appeals of mercy.
3. Break into (enter by force जबरन अंदर करना )
Thieves broke into our house while we were away.
4. Break off (stop talking suddenly बात करना अचानक बंद करना)
He broke off in the middle of his argument when his wife entered the room.
5. Break out (begin suddenly used of war, fire, epidemic, violence and such other evils अचानक फैलना/शुरू होना)
Communal riots broke out in many cities of Gujarat.
6. Break through (make a way through में से होते हुए निकलना)
The cattle have broken through the fence.
7. Break up (disperse तितर-बितर होना/करना)
The crowd broke up as the police started to use tear gas.
8. Break with (cease to be friendly with दोस्ती तोड़ना)
Jack was your great friend a month ago, but you now seem to have broken with him altogether.

2. Carry
1. Carry about (to retain a thing while you go from place to place साथ में रखना)
This boy carried about toys and small books for sale.
2. Carry away (bear off उठाकर ले जाना)
The crow carried away a silver ring.
3. Carry off (kill जान से मारना)
Cholera had carried off half the people of the village.
4. Carry on (continue जारी रखना)
The conversation was carried on in a low tone.
5. Carry out (execute अमल में लाना)
He did not have the ability to carry out the plan.
6. Carry through (accomplish पूरा करना)
A general has much anxiety in carrying through the operations of a long campaign.

3. Come
1. Come about (happen होना)
How did it come about that you went to live in Gujarat.
2. Come across (meet by chance अचानक मुलाकात होना)
I haven’t come across him for a long time.
3. Come by (acquire हासिल करना)
How did you come by that Chinese camera ?
4. Come down (pass from one generation to another पीढ़ी दर पीढ़ी चलना)
This custom has come down to us from the days of Ramayan.
5. Come down upon (rebuke फटकारना)
My father came down heavily upon our servant for cheating.
6. Come in (arrive, find a place पहुंचना, स्थान पाना)
The train came in ten minutes late.
In the making and producing of a film the author hardly comes in at all.
7. Come in for (receive प्राप्त करना)
She came in for some money under the will of an old uncle.
8. Come on (progress प्रगति करना)
The seedlings are all coming on nicely.
9. Come off (happen आना/पड़ना)
When does Diwali come off ?
10. Come out (appear प्रकाशित होना)
The paper he edits comes out on Friday.
11. Come out with (to present unexpectedly अनायास, पेश करना)
He came out with some opinions which shocked every body.
12. Come over (fill one’s mind पता लगना)
It suddenly came over me in the bus that I had left the front door unlocked.
13. Come round (change one’s opinion राय बदलना)
He opposed the scheme at first but when it was fully explained, he came round to our view.
14. Come to (return to consciousness होश में आना)
He look a long time to come to after the anaesthetic.
15. Come through (get success सफल होना)
The business has not came through.
16. Come up (to shoot up above the ground उगना)
The seed never came up at all.
17. Come up to (reach तक पहुंचना)
She only comes up to my shoulder.
His debts come up to a thousand rupees.
18. Come up with (overtake आगे निकलना)
I saw him ahead of me and came up with him at the traffic lights.
19. Come upon (find by chance संयोगवश मिलना)
I came upon these photographs while I was looking through some old papers.

4. Fall
1. Fall away (revolt, become lean विरोध करना, कमजोर होना)
The whole country has fallen away from the king.
These cattle have quickly fallen away in flesh.
2. Fall back (retreat कदम पीछे हटाना)
Napoleon had to fall back from Moscow.
3. Fall back on (resort to सहारा लेना)
We had to fall back on bicycles and buses when there was no petrol for cars.
4. Fall in with (agree सहमत होना)
He fell in with our plans.
5. Fall off (decline गिरना, कम होना)
His income has been falling off during the last two or three years.He fell off the tree.
6. Fall on (attack unexpectedly अचानक हमला करना)
The terriers lie in wait for passers-by and fall on them.
7. Fall out (disagree, happen unexpectedly असहमत होना, घटित होना)
The fell out over redecorating the house.
It so fell out that no guard was on duty that night.
8. Fall through (come to nothing विफल होना)
All their plans fell through because of the ban on foreign travel.
9. Fall to (begin eagerly to do a thing उत्सुक होना)
The author fell to writing again.
The sailors eagerly fell to homely food.

5. Get
1. Get about (move from place to place इधर-उधर घूमना)
The storm was so severe that it was impossible to get about.
2. Get ahead (advance आगे निकलना)
Sheila got ahead of her brother in studies.
3. Get along (prosper समृद्ध होना)
He seems to be getting along well in his business.
4. Get at (reach पहुंचना)
Our subject in this enquiry is to get at the truth.
5. Get away (leave चले जाना)
I go away early from the meeting.
6. Get away with (escape बचकर निकलना)
The pick-pocket could not get away with the purse he had picked.
7. Get back (return लौटकर आना)
He has just got back from his long journey.
8. Get down (descend नीचे उतरना)
They climbed up the hill; but how will they get down ?
9. Get in (enter प्रवेश करना)
Don’t stand at the door, get in.
10. Get into (attain to position in अमल में आना)
This new reform is fast getting into favour with the people.
11. Get off (dismount सवारी से उतरना)
He got off his bicycle and went into the house.
12. Get on (advance आगे बढ़ना)
How is your son getting on at school ?
13. Get over (surmount लांघना, कूदना)
The boys got over the garden wall and escaped.
14. Get out of (escape से बचना)
It is easier to get into debt than to get out of it.
15. Get through (finish a thing, pass through an illness and recover from it काम पूरा करना, बीमारी से ठीक होना)
These labourers are getting through their work slowly.
Will the sick man get through ?
16. Get to (reach पहुंचना)
I resolved to get to the ship.

6. Give
1. Give away (part with दान में देना/बांटना)
He never gave away a paisa in his life.
2. Give in (yield, make known घुटने टेकना, पहचान बनाना)
Though defeated, he would not give in.
He has given in his adherence to the Communist Party.
3. Get into (submit समर्पित करना)
He gave into the wish of the majority.
4. Give off (exhale बिखेरना)
These flowers give off their fragrance at night.
5. Give out (announce घोषणा करना)
He gave out that he was going to England.
6. Give over (handover संभालना)
He gave over charge of his office to his successor today.
7. Give up (abandon त्यागना, छोड़ना)
I gave up possession of my house today.

7. Go
1. Go about (move from place to place इधर-उधर घूमना)
He went about doing good.
2. Go across (cross पार करना)
I have been where the railway line goes across the Ganga.
3. Go after (pursue पीछा करना)
The dogs went after the wounded deer.
4. Go against (go contrary विपरित करना)
It goes against my wishes to leave the country.
5. Go along (move forward हटना, आगे बढ़ना)
Go along, you are getting under my feet.
6. Go aside (deviate विचलित होना)
Never go aside from the path of truth and honesty.
7. Go by (pass गुजरना)
The years go by much faster as you get older.
8. Go down (sink डूबना)
After the collision the smaller ship went down.
9. Go for (attack हमला करना)
He went for the thief with a hockey stick.
10. Go forth (issue फैलना)
A rumour went forth that the Prime Minister was poisoned.
11. Go in for (compete for प्रतियोगिता देना)
He is going in for the badminton championship.
12. Go off (leave, explode, go bad चले जाना, विस्फोट होना, खराब होना)
He went off in a hurry.
When the bomb went off it broke all our windows.
This fruit is going off rapidly.
13. Go on (behave व्यवहार करना)
He often goes on like that when he is worried about something.
14. Go on with (continue जारी रखना)
While others are idling their time, Mohan goes on steadily with his work.
15. Go out (cease to burn बुझ जाना)
The lights went out in the middle of the performance.
16. Go over (review ध्यान देना)
He went over a great many points in his speech.
17. Go through (examine systematically, suffer परखना, झेलना)
I cannot go through these letters in an hour.
If you know all I have gone through, you would pity me.
18. Go under (fail असफल होना)
In the hard school of business you either succeed or go under.
19. Go up (increase वृद्धि होना)
These days prices have gone up very high.
20. Go upon (act according to के अनुसार काम करना)
Is this the principle you always go upon.
21. Go with (agree with सहमत होना)
Can a singular verb go with a plural noun ?
This tie does not go with you suit.
22. Go without (remain without के बिना रहना)
A poor man has to go without many things.

8. Hold
1. Hold back (to conceal छुपाना)
When giving evidence, don’t hold back anything.
2. Hold by (cling or adhere to a thing मानना)
The son always holds by his father’s advice.
3. Hold forth (exhibit प्रदर्शित करना/दिखाना)
She held forth her child to the old man and asked him to bless it.
4. Hold in (restrain नियंत्रण करना)
If the horse had not been held in, he would have cleared the fence.
5. Hold off (keep at a distance दूरी बनाए रखना)
If the rain holds off, we can go for a walk in the afternoon.
I love him very dearly, I cannot hold him off.
6. Hold on (continue जारी रखना)
I find it impossible to hold on any longer and I must therefore resign my post.
7. Hold out (offer पेश करना)
She held out her hand.
8. Hold over (delay टालना/देर करना)
The judge promised to hold over the case till the next sitting of the court.
9. Hold to (abide by पालना करना)
He still holds to his intention of going to London.
10. Hold with (agree with सहमत होना)
I hold with you that it is better to forgive than punish.

9. Keep
1. Keep back (conceal छुपाना)
I will keep nothing back from you.
2. Keep down (hold under control नियंत्रण में रखना)
I will send more force to keep down the mountain tribes.
3. Keep from (abstain बचना/से दूर रहना)
He cannot keep from the use of tobacco.
4. Keep in with (continue to agree with सहमति बनाए रखना)
He will keep in with the Prime Minister if he possibly can.
5. Keep off (remain at a distance दूर रखना)
These curtains are meant to keep off mosquitoes.
6. Keep on (continue to advance आगे बढ़ते रहना)
In spite of difficulties, he kept on steadily.
7. Keep out (hinder from entering अंदर जाने से रोकना)
These warm clothes should keep out the cold.
8. Keep to (adhere to निभाना)
Always keep to your word.
9. Keep up (prevent from falling गिरने से रोकना)
These pillars will keep up the house.
10. Keep up with (not to fall behind कदम से कदम मिलाकर चलना)
Can America keep up with Russia in making new weapons.

10. Lay
1. Lay aside (put away दूर करना)
He laid aside all reserve and spoke boldly.
2. Lay down (resign त्याग पत्र देना/छोड़ना)
Ultimately, the minister laid down office.
3. Lay in (store इकट्ठा करना)
The government has laid in a good store of food grains.
4. Lay out (invest विनियोग करना)
He had laid out most of his capital in jewellery.
5. Lay up (store up for future use संभालकर रखना)
The fishermen have laid their boats up for the winter.

11. Look
1. Look about (examine one’s surroundings आस-पास का परीक्षण करना)
He came out of the plane and looked about him.
2. Look after (be incharge देखभाल करना)
Look after yourself on the journey.
3. Look down upon (treat with contempt तिरस्कार करना)
He is so proud of his promotion that he looks down upon all his former friends.
4. Look for (seek तलाशना)
I have been looking for you everywhere. Where were you?
5. Look forward to (expect with pleasure आशा करना)
I am looking forward to your visit.
6. Look into (examine carefully छानबीन करना)
The customs officer looked into all our suitcases.
7. Look out (be watchful सावधान रहना)
Look out, the milk is boiling over.
8. Look out for (expect की आशा करना)
The eagle is looking out for prey.
9. Look through (understand thoroughly ठीक से समझना)
Look through this book and tell me what you think of it.
10. Look to (turn towards से आशा करना)
I shall be looking to you for support in this.
11. Look up (find reference to संदर्भ देखना)
I have already looked it up in three dictionaries.
12. Look up to (respect आदर करना)
The whole neighbourhood looks up to her.
13. Look up and down (observe from head to foot अवलोकन करना)
She looked him up and down approvingly.

12. Make
1. Make after (run after पीछा करना)
The policeman made after the thief.
2. Make away with (remove in an underhand manner चुराना)
He has made away with five thousand rupees.
3. Make for (move towards की तरफ बढ़ना)
The boat made for the shore.
4. Make of (understand समझना)
He is unable to make anything of this telegram.
5. Make off with (run away with लेकर भाग जाना)
He has made off with my books.
6. Make out (discover खोजना/समझना)
He cannot make out the meaning of this passage.
7. Make over (transfer संभलाना)
He make over all his property to his sons.
8. Make towards (go in the direction of की तरफ जाना)
The swimmer make towards the right bank of the river.
9. Make up (reconcile सुलझाना)
These men have happily made up their quarrel.
10. Make up for (compensate for क्षतिपूर्ति करना)
Her learning makes up for her want of beauty.

13. Put
1. Put back (delay की वजह से देर होना)
That puncture put us back about half an hour.
2. Put by (save बचाकर रखना)
She has put some money by for a rainy day.
3. Put down (suppress दबाना)
He put down the rebellion with a firm hand.
4. Put down to (attribute to दोषारोपण करना)
He put his failure down to lack of capital.
5. Put forth (exert पूरी ताकत लगाना)
He put forth all his skill to defeat me.
6. Put forward (propose प्रस्ताव रखना)
His name was put forward as a likely successor to the retiring Chairman.
7. Put in (insert लगाना)
He put an advertisement in the wanted column of Patrika.
8. Put in for (apply for आवेदन करना)
Many candidates have put in for this post.
9. Put off (postpone स्थगित करना)
We shall have to put off our picnic until the weather improves.
10. Put on (assume धारण करना)
He put on an angry look.
11. Put out (issue जारी करना)
The Meteriological officer has put out a storm warning every day this week.
12. Put up (display चस्पा करना/लगाना)
They have put up a notice about the alternations in the time-table.
13. Put up (incite or instigate उकसाना)
Who put you up to this mischief ?
14. Put up with (endure सहन करना)
She found it difficult to put up with noisy neighbours.

14. Run
1. Run across (meet by chance संयोगवश मिलना)
We ran across them in Nehru Bazar the other day.
2. Run at (attack हमला करना)
The bull ran at the farmer.
3. Run by (pass rapidly तीव्र गति से करना)
You can sit at the window here and watch the trains run by.
4. Run in (enter running भागते हुए अंदर जाना)
He ran in to answer the telephone.
5. Run into (meet suddenly अचानक मुलाकात होना)
When I was going to the restaurant I ran into one of my old friends.
6. Run off (flee भाग जाना)
He ran off when he saw us coming.
7. Run on (talk continuously लगातार बातें करना)
She ran on about her experiences abroad for most of the time.
8. Run out (come to an end खत्म होना)
Our lease of this house runs out next year.
9. Run over (ride over, examine rapidly कुचलना, जल्दी से परीक्षण करना)
The car ran over a dog.
10. Run up against (meet suddenly by chance अचानक मुलाकात होना)
We ran up against each other in the Metro this morning.
11. Run upon (be preoccupied with किसी काम में व्यस्त)
Her mind is always running upon her husband’s career.

15. Set
1. Set about (begin आरंभ करना)
Please set about your business without delay.
2. Set aside (diregard निरस्त करना)
The Court set aside the agreement.
3. Set down (record दर्ज करना)
The magistrate set down in writing all the statements I made.
4. Set in (become established शुरू होना)
The rain has set in for the afternoon.
5. Set on (incite, attack भड़काना, हमला करना)
It is wicked to set on boys or dogs to fight.
Two dogs set on the poor old beggar.
6. Set out (display प्रदर्शित करना)
On market day the traders set out their goods on large sheets in the square.
7. Set with (studded with जड़ना)
The bracelet is set with pearls.

16. Stand
1. Stand against (resist टिके रहना)
No king could stand against Alexander.
2. Stand by (support, wait सहारा देना, इंतजार करना)
She stood by him through thick and thin.
3. Stand in with (be in alliance with गठजोड़ करना)
If the Janta Party members stand in with the opposition the Bill won’t pass.
4. Stand up for (defend बचाव करना)
I mean to stand up for my rights.

17. Take
1. Take after (resemble हमशक्ल होना)
This boy takes after his father.
2. Take down (write there and then लिखना)
The secretary took the letter down in shorthand.
3. Take for (assume to be गलतफहमी होना)
I took him for a priest.
4. Take in (cheat, understand धोना देना, समझना)
You cannot take her in so easily.
The boys could not take in his meaning.
5. Take off (leave ground उड़ान भरना)
The aeroplane took off punctually.
6. Take out (cause to be issued जारी करवाना)
I’m thinking of taking out a life-insurance policy.
7. Take to (form habit, show liking for आदत पड़ना, पसंद करना)
They’ve taken to lunching together everyday.
Those two young people took to each other at first sight.
8. Take up (absorb, adopt as occupation सोखना, व्यवसाय के रूप में अपनाना)
Get a cloth and take that water up before it soaks into the rug.
She has taken up dress designing in her spare time.

18. Turn
1. Turn away (dismiss खारिज करना)
He has turned away three applicants.
2. Turn away from (deviate विचलित होना)
He has never turned away from the course of truth and honesty.
3. Turn back (begin to return वापस आना)
They turned back when they saw the storm coming.
4. Turn down (refuse अस्वीकार करना)
His application for a licence was turned down.
5. Turn in (go to bed सोने जाना)
He came home very tired and turned in early.
6. Turn into (become बनना)
It will be interesting to see what sort of a man that boy turns into.
7. Turn off (close, disconnect बंद करना)
Will you please turn off the tap.
8. Turn on (open, connect चालू करना)
Turn the light on, will you ?
9. Turn over (trade to the extent of व्यापार करना)
He turns over Rs. 1000/- a week in that business.
10. Turn to (ask for help सहायता मांगना)
She has no one to turn to in her difficulty.
11. Turn up (appear, happen उपस्थित होना)
He turned up to lunch the other day.
We don’t know what will turn up tomorrow.
12. Turn upon (depend आश्रित होना)
The whole argument turns upon the truth of this document.

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