There are three kinds of condition :
1. Open Condition
ऐसी condition जो fulfil हो भी सकती है और नहीं भी, जैसे-
1. If it rains, the match will not be played. (It may rain, or it may not; we do not know.)
2. Unless you work harder, you will not go through the examination.
3. If you do not work harder, you will not pass the examination.
Note 1. – If the reference is to the present we use the present tense in both the conditional and the main clause.
1. If I eat cheese, it causes me indigestion.
2. If water freezes, it turns into ice.
3. If you press the wrong button, you lose your money.
Note 2. – If the reference is to the future, the present tense is used in the conditional clause, and the future tense in the main clause.
1. If I have time, I will visit the exhibition.
2. If I find anything useful, I will inform you.
When the main clause gives an order or an instruction, the future tense is, of course, replaced by the imperative.
1. If you meet him, ask him how his parents are getting on.
2. If it rains, remind him to take his umbrella.
3. If he is not ill, tell him to do his homework.
4. Please inform me if you don’t come.
Note 3. – If the references is to the past, two patterns are possible :
(a) If the reference is to something that is general or habitual the past tense is used in both clauses.
1. If the Commissioner received any complaints, he himself investigated them.
2. If there were many complaints, he referred them to the Deputy Commissioner.
(b) If the reference is to a specific occurrences or situation in the past, the past tense is used in the conditional clause and the future tense in the past in the main clause.
1. We decided that, if it was fine, we would play the match.
Note 4. – Double future. This is used for co-operation or request.
1. If you will find the purse I will reward you.
2. If you will collect the garments, I will press them.
Note 5. – Notice this polite usage :
1. I should consider it a favour if you would lend me your scooter.
2. Rejected Condition
ऐसी condition जो fulfil हो सकती थी लेकिन नहीं हो पायी, जैसे-
1. If I weren’t so busy, I would go to the cinema with you.
2. If I had time, I should visit the exhibition.
(These sentences imply that I am busy and that I have no time.) If the reference is to the past, this becomes :
3. If I had not been so busy, I would have gone to the cinema with you.
4. If I had had time, I should have visited the exhibition.
5. If he had worked harder, he would have passed the examination.
3. Imaginary Condition
ऐसी condition जो सच नहीं हो सकती, जैसे- (If I were a bird)
1. If I were you, I should buy a car.
2. If I were a millionaire, I would help the poor.
3. What would you do if you were attacked by a robber ?
Short Inverted Variations
ये सभी conditions में सम्भव है। ‘If’ को छोड़ दिया जाता है तथा Sentence को ‘should’, ‘were’ तथा ‘had’ से शुरू किया जाता है, जैसे -
1. Should he hear of your marriage, he would be surprised.
2. Were he to see you ( = If he were to see you / Should he see you), he would be surprised.
3. Had you worked harder, you would have passed the examination.
MODES OF EXPRESSING A CONDITION
Observe the following examples:
1. By using if or unless etc.
(a) If I say anything, I mean it.
(b) You cannot succeed unless you work hard.
(c) Even if I obey your order, you will kill me.
(d) If I were rich, I would help you.
2. By using were, should and had:
(a) Were I rich, I would help you.
(b) Should I go there, I would bring you a bike.
(c) Had you acted wisely, you would have succeeded.
3. By using a phrase:
(a) In case I go to Amritsar, I shall see your brother.
(b) But that I see it, I cannot believe it.
4. By using a participle:
(a) Supposing he comes here, what will you do?
(b) You will succeed provided that you work hard.
5. By using an imperative:
(a) Behave properly and all will praise you.
(b) Speak a word and I fire.
6. By using an interrogative:
(a) Do you know the answer? Show hands then.
(b) Does he take exercise? He ought to be healthy then.
7. By using but for and but that:
(a) But for your help, I would have been ruined.
(b) But that she is sick, she will be here in time.
(c) But that he were sick, he would be here in lime.
(d) But that he had been sick, he would have been here in time.
8. By using one more etc.
(a) One more word and you will be shot dead.
(b) One step further and I will put you to the sword.