(A) Direct Speech
Direct Speech contains the actual words of the speaker; as
Chandrika said, “My brother has a roaring business in Jaipur.”
In this Sentence ‘Chandrika said,’ is Reporting Verb and ‘My brother has a roaring business in Jaipur,’ is Reported Speech.
Reporting Verb : The Verb that introduces the Reported Speech.
Reported Speech : Actual words of the speaker.
Note : इस तरह से Direct Speech में Sentence के दो Parts होते हैं, पहला Reporting Verb तथा दूसरा Reported Speech
(B) Indirect Speech
Indirect Speech gives the substance of the Speaker’s actual words and not the exact words spoken by him or her; as –
Chandrika said that her brother had a roaring business in Jaipur.
(C) Direct Speech
Some Important Points
1. Direct Speech में Reporting Verb तथा Reported Speech होते हैं।
2. Reporting Verb में कोई सा भी Tense हो सकता है।
3. Reporting Verb के बाद Comma लगता है।
4. Reported Speech Inverted Commas (“______”) से शुरू होता है।
5. Reported Speech का पहला Letter हमेशा Capital होता है।
6. Reported Speech में कोई-सा भी Tense तथा कोई-सा भी Sentence हो सकता हैं। जैसे
Statement : Positive, Negative
Interrogative : By Helping Verb, By Wh-word
(D) Indirect Speech
Some Important Points : Direct से Indirect बनाते समय कुछ मुख्य बातें-
1. Reporting Verb का Tense कभी भी Change नहीं होता Word Change हो सकता है।
2. Reporting Verb की Comma हट जाती है।
3. Sentence को Link करने के लिए Conjunction use होता है। Conjunction Reported Speech के Sentence पर निर्भर करता है। जैसे :-
– यदि Sentence Statement, Exclamatory या optative होता है तो Conjunction ‘That’ use होता है।
– यदि Sentence Helping Verb से Interrogative होता है तो ‘If/Whether’ use होता है।
– यदि Sentence Wh-word से Interrogative होता हैं तो Wh-word खुद ही Conjunction के रूप में use हो जाता है।
– यदि Sentence Imperative होता है तो ‘To’ use होता है। और Negative होता है तो ‘not to’ use होता है।
1. Inverted Commas को हटाया जाता है।
2. Reported Speech के Pronouns को Change करना होता है
3. Reported Speech के Tense को बदला जाता है यदि Reporting Verb Past Tense में होती हैं तो -
4. सभी प्रकार के Sentences को Statement में बदलना पड़ता है।
5. Indirect Speech में (?) तथा (!) कभी भी ह्वह्यद्ग नहीं होते हैं। केवल (.) use करना होता है।
Note : Reported Speech के Pronouns तथा Tense का बदलना Reporting Verb के Pronouns तथा Tense पर निर्भर करता है।
(E) Rules Regarding Change of Direct Speech into Indirect Speech
Rule 1. Reporting Verb यदि Present या Future Tense में होती है तो Reported Speech का Tense Change नहीं होता हैं। As :
Direct – Chandrika Says, “She has brought a fair name to her family.”
Indirect – Chandrika says that she has brought a fair name to her family.
Direct – I say, “I spoiled all my books.”
Indirect – I say that I spoiled all my books.
Rule 2. Reporting Verb यदि Past Tense में होती है तो Reported Speech का Tense Past Tense में बदलना होता है। As :
Direct – I said, “I am speaking the truth.”
Indirect – I said that I was speaking the truth.
Direct – The teacher said, “Boys fail because they do not study regularly.”
Indirect – The teacher said that boys failed because they did not study regularly.
Direct – We said, “They can not cross the river unless the boatmen help them.”
Indirect – We said that they could not cross the river unless the boatmen helped them.
Change of the Verb (Tense)
Direct Speech – Indirect Speech
I Verb – II Verb
Is/Are/Am – Was/were
has/have – had
do/does I verb – II verb
do/does not I verb – did not I verb
II verb – had III verb
was/were – had been
did I verb – had III verb
did not I verb – had not III verb
will – would
shall – should/would
Can – could
may – might
must – must/had to
Note : इस Chart के माध्यम से सभी Tenses बदल जाते हैं। अलग से Tense को Change करने की आवश्यकता नहीं रह जाती हैं।
Direct – You said. “He is a very good athlete.”
Indirect – You said that he was a very good athlete.
Direct – He said, “Her parents will pay a visit to Delhi.”
Indirect – He said that her parents would pay a visit to Delhi.
Direct – The doctor said, “If the patient does not take medicine he will not recover.”
Indirect – The doctor said that if the patient did not take medicine he would not recover.
Direct – You said, “They were busy the whole day.”
Indirect – You said that they had been busy the whole day.
Direct – I said, “She was waiting for us at her uncle’s.”
Indirect – I said that she had been waiting for us at her uncle’s.
Exception to Rule – 2
कुछ Condition ऐसी होती है जिनमें Reporting Verb Past Tense में होने के बावजूद Reported Speech का Tense change नहीं होता हैं। As :
1. Universal Truth
2. Habitual Facts
3. Historical Facts
4. Time Clauses (in Past Tense)
5. Past का वे state of affairs जो Report करने तक existence में हो।
6. ‘Wish,’ ‘would rather/sooner’, ‘had better,’ ‘it is time’ के साथ use होने वाला Past Tense change नहीं होता है।
Direct – He said, “Face is the index of mind.”
Indirect – He said that face is the index of mind.
Direct – The teacher said, “The earth rotates on its axis.”
Indirect – The teacher said that the earth rotates on its axis.
Direct – Horatious said, “Death comes sooner or later.”
Indirect – Horatious said that death comes sooner or later.
Direct – The teacher said, “Akbar defeated Hemu in the Second Battle of Panipat.”
Indirect – The teacher said that Akbar defeated Hemu in the Second Battle of Panipat.
Direct – He said, “When we were living at Jhab we often saw Amrit.”
Indirect – He said that when they were living at Jhab they had often seen Amrit.
Direct – Nancy said, “I decided not to buy the house because it was on a main road.”
Indirect – Nancy said that she had decided not to buy the house because it was on a main road.
Direct – The children said, “We wish we didn’t have to take exams.”
Indirect – The children said that they wished they didn’t have to take exams.
Direct – Reenu said, “Bill wants to go alone but I’d rather he went with a group.”
Indirect – Reenu said that Bill wanted to go alone but she’d rather he went with a group.
Direct – He said, “It is time we began planning our holidays.”
Indirect – He said that it was time they began planning their holidays.
Direct – The teacher said, “Tom had better deposit his dues within prescribed time.”
Indirect – The teacher said that Tom had better deposit his dues within prescribed time.
Rule – 3 Change of Pronouns
1. Reported Speech के एक ही sentence में तीनों ही Persons के Pronouns use हो सकते है।
2. Reported Speech के Pronouns को Reporting Verb के Pronouns के अनुसार बदलना पड़ता है।
3. Pronouns को change करने का तरीका (method)
(A) (i) Reported Speech के I Person के Pronouns Reporting Verb के Subject के अनुसार बदलते हैं।
– I said, “I shall bring my bio-data with me.”
I said that I should bring my bio-data with me.
Note : इस Sentence में Pronouns change नहीं हुए है क्योंकि Reporting Verb तथा Reported Speech का Pronoun same है।
– He said, “I haven’t got my glasses with me.”
He said that he hadn’t got his glasses with him.
Note : इस Sentence में I, My तथा Me को क्रमश: he, his तथा him में बदलना पड़ा क्योंकि Reporting Verb का Subject ‘He’ हैं।
इसी तरह से -
– You said, “I did not give Sam my notes.”
You said that you had not given Sam your notes.
– She said, “Shashi insulted my brother in my presence.”
She said that Shashi had insulted her brother in her presence.
– They said, “We helped our neighbours as much as we could.”
The said that they helped their neighbours as much as they could.
(ii) जब Sentence Statement होता है तो say to – tell में, says to – tells में तथा said to – told में बदल जाता है।
– The doctor said to me, “I am completely despaired of the patient’s recovery.”
The doctor told me that he was completely despaired of the patient’s recovery.
(iii) Reported Speech का ‘we’ कभी-कभी change नहीं होता है - जैसे :-
– She said, “We must all die.”
She said that we must all die.
– She said to me, “We are unable to reach there in time because we got very late.”
She told me that we were unable to reach there in time because we had got very late.
– I said to him, “We want to help the poor with money.”
I told him that we wanted to help the poor with money.
Note : ‘We’ जब Reporting Verb के Subject तथा object दोनों को refer करता है तो change नहीं होता है।
(B) (i) Reported Speech के II Person Pronouns Reporting Verb के Object के अनुसार बदलते हैं।
– I said to him, “You have already taken your turn.”
I told him that he had already taken his turn.
– He said to me, “You did not admit your mistake.”
He told me that I had not admitted my mistake.
– I said to you, “Your chances of success are not bright.”
I told you that your chances of success were not bright.
– We said to them, “You can not get the posts you aspire for.”
We told them that they could not get the posts they aspired for.
(ii) Reporting verb में यदि object दिया हुआ नहीं है तो Reported Speech का II person को III person में बदलना पड़ता है। जैसे :-
– She said, “You can not get whatever you want.”
She said that he could not get whatever he wanted.
(iii) Reported Speech के III Person के Pronouns में कोई change नहीं होता है। जैसे:-
– I said, “He can not contain himself for joy.”
I said that he could not contain himself for joy.
– You said to me, “They will carry on even against heavy odds.”
You told me that they would carry on even against heavy odds.
– She said to you, “He will surely drop a line in reply.”
She told you that he would surely drop a line in reply.
Note : Pronouns को Change करते समय उनके function में कोई change नहीं होता है।
Rule – 4 : Change of words denoting “Time” and “Position”.
Direct Speech – Indirect Speech
1. Now – Then
2. Come – go (not always)
3. Here – There
4. This – That
5. These – Those
6. Today – That day
7. Tonight – That night
8. Tomorrow – The next day
9. Thus – So
10. Ago – Before
11. Just – Then
12. Just now – Just then
13. Hence – Thence
14. Yesterday – The previous day
15. Last – The Previous
16. Next – The following
17. The day before yesterday – the day before the previous day
18. The day after tomorrow – The day after the next day
– I said to her, “I will see you here tomorrow.”
I told her that I would see her there the next day.
– She said to me, “I bought these books yesterday.”
She told me that she had bought those books the previous day.
– You said to them, “Now I shall tell you another story.”
You told them that then you should tell them another story.
– He said to me, “I met your brother two years ago.”
He told me that he had met my brother two years before.
– I said to you, “I intend to start a new business next year.”
I told you that I intended to start a new business the following years.
Rule – 5 : Conversion of Assertive Sentences (statements)
1. Change Reporting Verb into as follow
(i) Say/says/said – Say/says/said respectively
(ii) Say to/Says to/ Said to – tell/tells/told respectively
2. Use ‘That’ as a Conjunction.
3. Change Pronouns and Tense if needed.
– Jahanara said to the king, “I shall suffer all that you mete out to our aged father.”
Jahanara told the king that she would suffer all that he meted out to their aged father.
– I said, “I care not a fig for him.”
I said that I cared not a fig for him.
– “Purnima”, said the manager, “You will be promoted only if you work hard,”
The manager told Purnima that she would be promoted only if she worked hard.
– “Today it clear,” said the hermit to the people, “but it will rain cats and dogs tomorrow.”
The hermit told the people that, that day it was clear, but it would rain cats and dogs the next day.
Rule – 6 : Conversion of Interrogative Sentences
1. Change R/V into ‘ask’, ‘enquire’, ‘demand’
(i) Say – ask, enquire, demand
(ii) Say to – enquire of, demand of, ask
2. Use Conjunction –
(i) If/whether – If question begins with a helping verb.
(ii) Wh-word – If question begins with a wh-word.
3. Change Pronouns and Tense if needed.
4. Change the question into the statement.
5. Replace (?) with (.) with
As, (a) Questions beginning with a Helping Verb
– Yukta said to Rani, “Are you not my sister ?”
Yukta asked Rani if she was not her sister.
– She said to me, “Will you take part in games ?”
She enquired of me whether I would take part in games.
– The manager said to me, “Do you intend to go abroad for further training ?”
The manager enquired of me if I intended to go abroad for further training.
(b) Questions beginning with a Wh-Word.
– “What is the greatest wonder in the world ?” said Rani to Yukta.
Rani asked Yukta what the greatest wonder was in the world.
– The teacher said to the students, “Why don’t you speak the truth ?”
The teacher asked the students why they did not speak the truth.
– The patient said to the doctor, “How often should I take the medicine ?”
The patient asked the doctor how often he should take the medicine.
(c) Sentences having ‘yes’ or ‘no’.
– “Are there any more files ?” He asked. “Yes, sir,” said the peon.
He asked the peon whether there were any more files. The peon replied respectfully that there were.
– The actor said to the actress, “Did you break my heart last night?” “No, Sir I didn’t,” said she.
The actor asked the actress if she had broken his heart the previous night, she replied respectfully that she hadn’t.
Rule – 7 : Conversion of Imperative Sentences
1. Change Reporting Verb according to the sense.
(i) Request – Request, beg, entreat, etc.
(ii) Advice – Advise, forbid, etc.
(iii) Order – Order, command, tell, etc.
2 Use ‘to’ before the verb as a linker.
3. Change Pronouns and Tense if needed.
4. Change ‘Don’t’ into ‘not to’
– The teacher said, “Geetika, answer my questions and then sit down.”
The teacher ordered Geetika to answer his questions and then sit down.
– “Avoid bad company, Neetu,” said the mother.
The mother advised Neetu to avoid bad company.
– The father said to his daughter, “Do not take in hand anything unless you think over the pros and cons of it before hand.
The father advised his daughter not to take in hand anything unless she thought over the pros and cons of it before hand.
– He said to his boss, “Sir, give me a chance to prove my worth.”
He requested his boss to give him a chance to prove his worth.
Imperative Sentences - Beginning with ‘Let’
Let – its uses
1. Change Reporting Verb into Say – Propose/Suggest, Say to – Propose to/Suggest to
2. Use ‘That’ as a Conjunction
3. Change ‘Let’ into ‘Should’
4. Change Pronouns and Tense if needed.
1. Change Reporting Verb into Request, Command, Order,
2. Use ‘That’ or ‘To’ as a linker
3. जब Conjunction ‘That’ use करते है तो ‘Let’ को might be allowed to में change किया जाता है।
4. जब ‘To’ use करते है यह ‘To let’ बन जाता है।
5. Change Pronouns and Tense if needed.
– She said, “Let us enjoy boating in the river, friends.”
She suggested to her friends that they should enjoy boating in the river.
– I said to them, “Let us cast lots and decide the issue without wasting the time.”
I proposed to them that we should cast lots and decide the issue without wasting the time.
– The manager said, “Shanu, let the candidate come in for further discussion.”
(i) The manager ordered Shanu that the candidate might be allowed to come in for further discussion.
(ii) The manager ordered Shanu to let the candidate come in for further discussion.
Rule – 8 : Conversion of Exclamatory Sentences
1. Change Reporting Verb into ‘exclaim with’, ‘confess’, ‘applaud’ etc.
2. Use ‘that’ as a Conjunction.
3. Change the sentence into the statement.
4. Replace (!) with (.)
– Kuljeet said, “Hurrah ! I have passed the examination with good marks.”
Kuljeet exclaimed with joy that he had passed the examination with good marks.
– She said, “Alas ! I am very unfortunate in losing such a costly gold ring.”
She exclaimed with sorrow that she was very unfortunate in losing such a costly gold ring.
– She said to me, “Pooh ! you have again not qualified the examination.”
She exclaimed with contempt that I had again not qualified the examination.
– I said to her, “What ! you have lost you passport while on journey.”
I exclaimed with surprise that she had lost her passport while on journey.
– The spectators said, “Bravo ! well played, Sachin.”
The spectators applauded Sachin that he had played well.
Points to Remember –
Aha/Ha/Hurrah ! – expresses joy/happiness
Alas/Oh ! – expresses sorrow, grief or pain
Oh ! what – expresses surprise
Bravo ! – expresses applause
Pooh ! – expresses contempt
– She said, “How lovely the child is !”
She exclaimed that the child was very lovely.
– I said to him, “What a fool you are !”
I exclaimed that he was a great fool.
Rule – 9 : Conversion of Optative Sentences
1. Change Reporting Verb into ‘wish’, ‘pray’, ‘bid’, etc.
2. Use ‘that’ as a conjunction.
3. Change Tense and Pronouns if needed.
– The old woman said to me, “May you be happy and prosperous !”
The old woman prayed (for me) that I might be happy and prosperous.
– She said to me, “Would that! you were here at that time.”
She wished that I had been there at that time.
– He said to me, “Good morning, I have come to consult you.”
He wished me good morning and told me that he had come to consult me.
– The leader said, “Farewell, my countrymen !”
The leader bade his countrymen farewell.