Subject - verb agreement/concord

1. A verb must agree with its subject in number and person.
Verb हमेशा Subject के अनुसार use होती है यदि subject singular हो तो verb singular और यदि subject plural हो तो verb भी plural use होती है।
जैसे -
1. The number of students coming for admission to public schools is decreasing considerably
2. The quality of these mangoes is not good .
3. His knowledge of the scriptures is certainly beyond the common.
4. The results of his hard work are to be seen only after they come.
5. The teacher of these students is very efficient.
6. The smell of these flowers is really very good.
7. The state of his affairs was such as to cause anxiety to his creditors.
8. The behaviour of the children was excellent.
9. The cast of all these articles has risen.
10. A series of lectures has been arranged on the subject.
Note : इन Sentence में verb का Agreement Number, quality, knowledge, teacher, smell, state, behaviour, cost, series के अनुसार होगा जो Singular है इसलिए verb singular use होगी। Results Plural है इसलिए verb plural use होगी।

2. जब दो या दो से ज्यादा Singular nouns या pronouns को and से जोड़ा जाता है तब verb plural use होगी। जैसे-
1. Plato and Aristotle were Greek Philosophers.
2. He and his bother were absent from the office.
3. Gold and silver are precious metals.
4. Hary, Jim and John go to the same school.
5. Fire and water do not agree
6. Water and oil do not mix.
7. Knowledge and wisdom are the pillars of successful life.
8. The writer and the artist were rewarded.
Exception : जब दो या दो से अधिक Singular noun जब एक ही idea बताते हों तो verb singular use होती हैं। जैसे-
1. Time and tide waits for none.,
2. Bread and butter is not the only need of life.
3. Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy wealthy and wise.
4. The leaf and bud in this green heralds the coming of spring.
5. The nook and corner of this city is rife with rumour.
6. The ebb and flow of the tides is now over.
7. Slow and steady wins the race.
8. His power and influence is really great.
9. The peace and order of society was not promoted by the English.
10. The scheme and plan of my life differs from that of yours.
11. The horse and carriage is his biggest property.
12. The Poet and philosopher is dead.
13. The Playwright and actor was felicitated.
14. My friend and benefactor has come to help me.
15. The orator and statesman has arrived.
Note : जब दो Nouns एक Person को refer करते हों तो Article repeat नहीं होता है केवल पहले noun के साथ use होता है। और यदि Article repeat होता है तो verb plural use होती हैं जैसे -
1. The poet and philosopher is dead.
2. The poet and the philosopher are dead.

3. जब Singular Subject के साथ with, as well as, and not, together with, besides, in addition to,जोड़े जाते हैं तब भी verb singular use होती है जैसे-
1. The poorman’s house with its belongings was gutted by the miscreants.
2. The manager with his subordinates was arrested by the police.
3. The plane with its passengers was hijacked by the terrorists.
4. Sanskrit as well as Persian is taught here.
5. The proper guidance as well as friendly approach is essential for the development of children.
6. Milk besides other dairy products is sold here.
7. Knowledge in addition to wisdom is a key to success.
8. The teacher together with his students is sitting in the class.
9. I and not his brother am to attend the court.
10. Soma like her sisters is a good doctor.
Note:- यदि इन्हीं शब्दों को plural Subject के साथ जोड़ा जाता हैं तो verb plural use होती हैं। जैसे : The students with their teacher are sitting in the sun.

4. जब दो या दो से अधिक subjects को 'or' या ‘nor’ से जोड़ा जाता हैं तो verb दूसरे subject के अनुसार use होती है । जैसे-
1. No word or phrase spoken in prayers is unheard by Him.
2. Our strength or weakness depends on the power of our determination.
3. Neither adversity nor prosperity affects real friends.
4. Either Rohan or Roshan has solved this equation.
5. No nook or corner was left unturned.
6. Our happiness or our sorrow is due to our own deeds.
7. Neither his father nor his mother is alive.
8. Neither the manager nor his subordinates were arrested by the police.
9. Either the manage or his subordinates have taken this decision.
10. Either sir or I am mistaken.
11. Neither you nor she has done this work.
12. Neither you nor he has deceived me.
13. Either Sushma or I have to be selected for this post.

5. Either, neither, each, everyone, many a के साथ हमेशा Singular verb use होती है। जैसे-
1. I asked him whether either of the applicants was suitable for the post.
2. Neither of the sisters was allowed to enter the morgue.
3. Each of the girls has a gaudy dress.
4. Everyone of them has a blanket.
5. Many a bird in this sanctuary is a new arrival.
6. Many a man has died of cholera in Orissa.

6. Each और every जब adjective होते हैं तथा and से जुड़े होते हैं तब भी इन्हें singular verb की आवश्यकता होती है। जैसे-
1. Every boy and every girl was given a reward.
2. Every emotion and every operation of the mind has its corresponding expression on the face.
3. Every day and each hour brings duties.
4. Each and every trade has its technical aspects.

7. दो subjects जब not only-but also से जोड़े जाते है तब verb second subject के अनुसार use होती हैं। जैसे-
1. Not only the officer but also the soldiers were laughing.
2. Not only the soldiers but also the officer was laughing.
3. Not only you but also he was absent.
4. Not only he but also I am your friend.

8. कुछ nouns का Form तो plural होता है लेकिन इनका meaning singular होता है इसलिए इनके साथ singular verb use होती है।
(i) News, innings
(ii) Names of some subjects of studies
Mathematics, Economics, Statistics, Physics, Civics, Politics, Genetics, Mechanics, Obstetrics, Linguistics, Acoustics, Aerobics etc.
(iii) Names of some diseases
Measles, Diabetes, Rickets, Rabies, Mumps, Shingles etc.
(iv) Names of some games-
Billiards, Darts, Draughts, Bowls etc.
1. The news is true.
2. No news is good news.
3. Mathematics is a branch of study in every school.
4. Measles is not a fatal disease.
5. Billiards is the game of the royal.

9. Some collective nouns जिनका Form singular होता हैं meaning plural होता है इसलिए verb plural use होती हैं।
Cattle, Poultry, People, Gentry, Clergy, Police, Vermin, Peasantry, Artillery, Infantry etc.
1. The cattle are grazing in the field.
2. These cattle are mine.
3. The police were following the thief.

10. कुछ Nouns अपने आप में Plural होते हैं लेकिन उनका meaning singular होता है इसलिए इनके साथ plural Verb use होती हैं।
(i) Clothing - Pants, Jeans, Trousers, Pyjamas, Breeches, Knickers, Jodhpurs,Bermudas etc.
(ii) Instruments - Scissors, Pliers, Binoculars, Scales, Shears, Tongs, Spectales, Goggles, Glasses etc.
Note :- इन सभी words को pair of --- के साथ use किया जा सकता है। इस Condition में verb singular use होगी जैसे-
1. Where are my pant ?
2. Where is my pair of pants ?
3. A pair of pants costs me two hundred rupees.

11. None हालांकि Singular होता है लेकिन अपने साथ verb अक्सर plural लेता है-
1. None are so blind as those who will not see.
2. None of these words are now current.
3. None of his poems are well known.
4. None but fools have believed it.

12. Collective Noun अपने साथ Singular verb लेता हैं जब उसे एक ही माना जाता हैं (as one whole) यह Plural verb तब लेता है जब प्रत्येक Member का अपना महत्व होता है। इसका मतलब जब collective Noun का division हो जाता हैं तब verb Plural use होती है। जैसे-
1. The committee has (has/have) a unanimous decision.
2. The committee has ( has/have) issued its report.
3. The staff council has (has/have) unanimously passed this resolution.
4. The parliament has elected its speaker without voting.
5. The public has cast its vote in favour of those who are honest and dependable
6. The government has presented the budget in the parliament.
7. The jury was unanimous in its stand on the issue.
8. The committee are divided in their opinion on this issue.
9. The ship sank and the crew were soon making efforts for life.
10. The government are divided on the issue of the implementation of the Mandal Commission report.
11. The jury has awarded death punishment on him in one voice.
12. The governing body have not yet arrived at any agreeable decision.

13. Title of the books and Names of the Countries हमेशा Singular verb लेते हैं। जैसे-
1. The Arabian Nights is still favourite with children.
2. Plutarch’s Lives makes an interesting reading.
3. Gulliver’s Travels was written by Jonathan Swift.
4. Tales From Shakespeare is a joint production of Charles and Mary Lamb.
5. The United States of America is the richest country of the world.

14. ‘A great many’ तथा ‘A number of’ के साथ Plural noun तथा plural verb use होती है। जैसे-
1. A great many students have been declared successful.
2. A number of students have been declared successful.

15. जब कोई Plural Noun कोई Specific quantity या amount दर्शाता है तो verb Singular use होती हैं। जैसे-
1. Twenty minutes is allowed to each speaker.
2. Even ten thousand rupees is a big sum for me.
3. Twenty miles is a long distance for a pedestrian.
4. Five kilometers is a long walk.
5. Ninety rupees is too much for this bag.
6. Two thirds of the population was massacred.
7. Two ponds is all I need.

16. The word ‘means’ अपने साथ Singular या Plural verb ले सकता है। जैसे-

Means :
Singular verb (जब साधन के रूप में use किया जाता है तब Singular verb लेता हैं।)
Plural Verb (इसे जब Income/wealth के रूप में use किया जाता हैं तब plural verbs use होती हैं।)
* The oldman’s means are scanty though he manages to send his son for higher studies.
* His means are plenty.
* The means of transportation is the backbone of our economy.
* The means employed by you is sufficient.

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