There are three groups of Non-Finites :-
1. The Infinitive : To + I verb – Present Participle
2. The Gerund : Verb + ing – Past Participle
3. The Participle : Perfect Participle–verb + ing, III verb, having + III verb
Important Points : –
(a) I verb के पहले ‘To’ use करने से ‘I verb’ Infinitive बन जाती है और अपना function बदलकर यह Noun बन जाती है, और Noun की तरह function करती है।
(b) Infinitive को with ‘To’ और without ‘To’ use किया जाता है।
(c) verb की ‘–ing form’ कभी भी without helping verb use नहीं होती है और यदि use की जाती है तो वह Gerund कहलाती है और Noun का काम करती है।
(d) verb की ‘–ing form’ present participle कहलाती है, जब यह Adjective का काम करती है और without helping verb use होती है।
(e) verb की III form जब without helping verb use होती है तो वह Past Participle बन जाती है और Adjective का काम करती हैं।
(f) Having + III verb Perfect Participle कहलाता है।
(a) The Infinitive – To + I verb – Noun
Note : Infinitive को Noun के रूप में use किया जाता है - इसलिए
(i) यह Noun की तरह Subject बन सकता है।
(ii) यह Noun की तरह Object बन सकता है।
(iii) यदि यह Transitive होता है तो इसे Object चाहिए होता है।
(iv) Verb की तरह इसे Adverb से modify भी किया जा सकता है।
(v) Infinitive दो तरह के होते हैं -
(a) To–Infinitive जिन्हें ‘To’ चाहिए।
(b) Bare–Infinitive जिन्हें ‘To’ नहीं लिखना चाहिए।
To steal is wrong.
(To steal–Subject of verb ‘is’)
I want to go.
(to go–Object of verb ‘want’)
To respect our parents is our moral duty.
(To respect–Subject of Verb ‘is’, our parents– Object of ‘to respect’)
He refused to obey orders.
(to obey–Object of Verb refused, orders–Object of ‘to obey’)
Many people want to make money quickly
(to make–Object of Verb ‘want’)
(money–Object of ‘to make’)
(quickly–Modifies ‘to make’)
Let him sit here.
(b) Use of the Infinitive (Function)
(1) As a Subject
(2) As an Object
(3) As a Subject/verb Complements
(4) As an Object Complement
(5) As an Object of a Preposition
Some Other Functions (Qualifying Infinitives)
(6) To Qualify a Verb–Adverb
(7) To Qualify an Adjective–Adverb
(8) To Qualify a Noun–Adjective
(9) To Qualify a Sentence–Absolute Infinitive
Note : जब Infinitive Noun की तरह use होता है तब यह Simple Infinitive कहलाता है और इसके अलावा use होता है qualifying Infinitive कहलाता है।
(1) As the subject of a verb ; as
To find fault is easy.
To steal is wrong.
To play with explosives is dangerous.
To shout at women is a shame.
To meet a cheerful person is a pleasure.
To play with fire is dangerous for children.
To hear is difficult for a deaf person.
इन Sentences को ‘It’ Subject बनाकर भी लिखा जा सकता है। जैसे :-
It is easy to find fault.
It is wrong to steal.
It is dangerous to play with explosives.
It is a shame to shout at women.
It is a pleasure to meet a cheerful person.
It is dangerous for children to play with fire.
It is difficult for a deaf person to hear.
(2) As the object of a transitive Verb ; as
Please remember to wipe your feet before coming in.
I forget to lock the front door last night.
Nobody really loves to work.
I did not intend to cheat you.
Do you really dislike to go out in the evening.
I omitted to tell you important news.
I regret to inform you.
Most women fear to lose their good looks.
He continued to speak nonsense.
Rohit, please begin to read.
He attempted to lift heavy weight
I can not bear to eat that stuff.
(3) As the subject/verb complement
My desire is to see you again.
My greatest pleasure is to sing.
His habit is to ride again.
(4) As an object complement
Bid her go there.
I made him run.
I hear him cry.
Make him stand.
Note : जब Infinitive Object Complement बनता है तो without ‘to’ use होता है।
(5) As an object of a preposition
He had no choice but/except hear his story.
The speaker is about to begin.
He does everything except deceive his friend.
Note : But/except, about के बाद Infinitive use होता है दूसरे Prepositions के बाद नहीं।
Some Other Functions of the Infinitives
(6) To qualify a verb (to express purpose) ® Adverb
We eat to live. (purpose)
I come to see you. (purpose)
He went to buy something. (purpose)
The counsel rose to address the court.
Note: (i) Verb Intransitive + Infinitive – Purpose बतायेगा।
(ii) इस तरह से यह Adverb का काम करता है।
(7) To Qualify an Adjective – (Adverb)
Figs are good to eat.
This medicine is bitter to take.
He was too busy to see us.
He is slow to forgive.
Note : (i) Adjective + Infinitive – (Qualifies Adjective)
(ii) इस तरह से यह Adverb बन जाता है।
(8) To Qualify a Noun – (Adjective)
We have no time to waste.
Here is a house to let.
He has power to concentrate his thoughts.
The order to advance was given.
Note : (i) Noun + Infinitive – (Qualifies Noun)
(ii) इस तरह से यह Adjective बन जाता है।
(9) To Qualify a Sentence : (Absolute use)
To speak the truth, I am afraid of it.
To speak it out frankly, I have no aptitude for business.
Note : इस तरह से यह पूरे Sentences को Qualify करता है और Absolute Infinitive कहलाता है।
(c) The Infinitive as object :
कुछ verbs जिनके बाद Infinitive object के रूप में use होता है।
afford, determine, mean, refuse, appear, happen, offer, undertake, arrange,
hope, pretend, wish, decide, hurry, promise, trouble, fail, manage, prove.
She happened to arrive later than we expected.
You should arrange to stay there.
He offered to mend his socks.
Don’t trouble to ring when you come in.
Sentence Structure :
Subject + Verb + Infinitive
(d) कुछ verb ऐसी होती है, जिन्हें दो तरह use किया जा सकता है।
(i) Subject + verb + Infinitive
Note : verb के Infinitive खुद object बन जाते हैं।
(ii) Subject + verb + object + Infinitive
Note : verb के object और फिर Infinitive use होते हैं।
(iii) ये verb निम्नलिखित है -
ask, like, choose, want, intend, mean, hate, beg, love, expect, wish.
I asked to leave (इसमें ‘I’ के जाने की बात हो रही है।)
I asked her to leave (इसमें ‘her’ के जाने की बात हो रही है।)
इसी तरह से -
My wife likes to sing herself.
My wife likes me to sing.
The all begged to see the photographs.
The all begged me to see the photographs.
(e) कुछ verb ऐसी होती है जिनके बाद object और Infinitive use होते हैं।
(i) Subject + verb + object + Infinitive
(ii) ये verbs निम्नलिखित है -
allow, advise, cause, compel, encourage, force, instruct, invite, oblige,
order, permit, persuade, press, request, teach, tell, tempt, warn.
She ordered me to leave the room.
They invited us to spend holidays with them.
She cannot force me to tell her anything.
(f) (a) Infinitive without ‘to’ (Bare Infinitive)
कुछ verbs ऐसी होती है जिनके use होने वाला Infinitive without ‘To’ होता है।
Subject + verb + object + Infinitive (without ‘To’)
These verbs are –
See, watch, behold, observe, hear, smell, feel, notice, bid, help, make, let.
I saw the fall.
I watched the reaper cut the crops.
I beheld her sit.
She observed me study.
She heard me sing.
The cook smelt the meat burn.
I felt her touch me.
I noticed her copy.
She bade me go away.
He helped me stand.
She made me cook food.
Let him stand alone.
Important : (i) See, hear, observe, watch, notice, feel, smell, verb से दो तरह से sentence बन सकते है। जैसे :-
Subject + Verb + Object + Infinitive (without ‘to’)
यह Structure Completed Action दर्शाता है।
जैसे :- I saw him fall. (Completed Action)
Subject + verb + object + verb + ing (Action in progress)
यह Structure action in progress दर्शाता है।
जैसे :- I saw him falling. (Action in progress.)
(ii) Infinitive without ‘to’ (Bare Infinitive) को यदि Passive Construction में use किया जाता है तो ‘to’ use होता है। जैसे :-
– I observed him put his hand in his pocket.
He was observed to put his hand in his pocket.
– The doctor felt her pulse beat unevenly.
He pulse was felt to beat unevenly.
– I saw the burglar break into the house.
The burglar was seen to break into the house.
(iii) ‘Let’ से साथ न तो Active में और न ही Passive में ‘to use होता है। जैसे :-
She let the bucket fall into the well. (Active)
The bucket was let fall into the well. (Passive)
(b) Modals (can, could, may, might, shall, should, will, would, must, dare, need) के साथ-साथ आने वाला Infinitive हमेशा without ‘to’ होता है। जैसे :-
It may rain tonight. (Not ‘to rain’)
You should follow traffic rules. (Not ‘to follow’)
I will do it. (Not ‘to do’)
You need not worry. (Not ‘to worry’)
How dare you come in ? (not ‘to come’)
But (i) Ought के साथ हमेशा ‘to’ use होता है।
You ought to obey your parents (Not ‘obey’)
(ii) जब ‘dare’ तथा ‘need’ main verb के रूप में use होते है तो Infinitive, without ‘to’ use नहीं होगा। जैसे :-
He dare not say anything against his brother (Not ‘to say’, इसमें ‘dare’ modal है।)
He does not dare to say anything against his brother. (इसमें ‘dare’ main verb है।)
(c) ‘Had better’, ‘had rather’, ‘would rather’, ‘sooner than’, ‘rather than’ के बाद without ‘to’ Infinitive use होता है। जैसे :-
You had better ask permission from him. (Not ‘to ask’)
I would rather die than suffer all this. (Not ‘to die’ and ‘to suffer’)
I had rather dance than sing. (Not ‘to dance’ and ‘to sing’)
He would sooner die than tell a lie, (Not ‘to die’ and’ to tell’)
(d) जब two or more Infinitives are joined by ‘and तो ‘and’ के बाद वाला Infinitive without ‘to use होता है।
To err is human and forgive divine (Not ‘to forgive’)
I asked him to go and bring money. (Not ‘to bring’)
[B] The Gerund
The Gerund – verb + ing – Noun
Note : Gerund को Noun के रूप में use किया जाता है - इसलिए
(i) यह Noun की तरह Subject बन सकता है।
(ii) यह Noun की तरह Object बन सकता है।
(iii) यह Noun की तरह Preposition का Object सकता है।
(iv) इसे Verb Complement के रूप में use होता है।
(v) इसे verbal noun के रूप में use किया जा सकता है।
(vi) कुछ Gerund compounds होते हैं।
(vii) Possessive Case के बाद हमेशा Gerund use होता है।
(viii) यदि यह Transitive होता है तो इसे object चाहिए होता है।
(ix) Verb की तरह इसे Adverb से Modify भी किया जा सकता है।
(i) As a Subject
Blushing is a sign of modesty.
Reading is a good habit.
Writing with the left hand is difficult.
Eating too much makes one fat.
Raising your hat to a lady is a good manners.
Mending cars is the work of a mechanic.
Gambling has ruined many.
Walking in the sun is harmful to eyes.
Drinking a lot of water when you are hot is said to be unwise.
(ii) As an Object
I can not bear listening to that awful noise on the radio.
Please begin reading, Mr. Sawan.
He could not continue speaking because of his cough.
Do you really dislike going out in the morning.
Nobody really loves working.
Most women fear losing their good looks.
(iii) As an object of a preposition
I was fined for coming late.
She is very clever at breeding dogs.
I don’t think he is capable of doing it correctly.
She is fond of skating.
I am thinking of going abroad.
She is very good at dancing.
Think what you want to say before putting pen.
She burst into on hearing the news in the paper.
After putting the books aside; he fell asleep.
(iv) As a Verb Complement
Seeing is believing.
Sitting here is wasting of time.
What I most detest is smoking.
(v) As a Verbal Noun
The + Gerund + of – (Verbal Noun कहलाता है।)
The reading of novels is my favourite past time.
The smoking of cigarette is dangerous to health.
The coming of transistor could not have been for seen.
The writing of short poems is my hobby.
The making of the plan is in hand.
The time of the singing of the birds has come.
Adam consented to the eating of the fruit.
(vi) Some Compound Gerunds –
Walking-stick, frying-pen, hunting-whip, fencing-stick, writing-table, waiting-list, diving-board, driving-licence, landing-card, dining-room, swimming-pool.
(vii) Gerund after Possessive Case –
His helping others is really appreciable.
I don’t like Nancy’s visiting me often.
We don’t enjoy John’s singing.
I suggest your friend’s going to that film tonight.
My going there is not important.
You should really avoid the Babu’s going out with a cold like that.
[C] THE PARTICIPLE
Definition – A participle is a word which is partly a verb and partly an adjective.
(i) Present Participle – Verb + ing – Adjective – Verb + ing + Noun
(ii) Past Participle – III verb – Adjective – III verb + noun
(iii) Perfect Participle – Having + III verb – Adjective –
Having + III verb + noun
(1) Present Participle –
Important Points :–
(1) इसे adjective की तरह noun के पहले तथा noun के बाद use किया जा सकता है। जैसे:-
A rolling stone gathers no moss.
We had a drink of the sparkling water.
The creaking door awakened the dog.
A lying witness ought to be punished.
We met a girl carrying a basket of flowers.
The children coming home from school look in at the open door.
As passenger alighting from the train fell over a bag on the platform.
I met a woodcutter carrying a load of wood.
Once I saw a man walking on a stick.
Present Participle को अपना proper subject चाहिए होता है। यदि participle का proper agreement नहीं होता है तो sentence में अनर्थ हो जाता है। Participle का subject यदि अलग दिया हुआ नहीं है तो अगले sentence का subject इसका भी subject बन जाता है। जैसे :-
Standing at the gate, a scorpion stung him.
Explanation : (i) इस sentence में standing का subject a scorpion हो गया है, जो ठीक नहीं है।
(ii) इस sentence को ऐसे लिखा जायेगा -
Standing at the gate, he was stung by a scorpion या
While he was standing at the gate, a scorpion stung him.
Some more examples :–
Going up the hill, an old temples was seen.
Entering the room, the light was quite dazzling.
Being fine, I went out.
Being poor, I helped him with money.
Walking through the park, the sun was very hot.
(2) Past Participle –
(i) इसे भी adjective की तरह noun के साथ use किया जा सकता है। जैसे :-
His tattered coat needs mending.
A burnt child dreads the fire.
His finished manners produced a very favourable impression.
She wears a worried look.
A lost opportunity never returns.
इसे इस तरह से भी use किया जा सकता है -
Blinded by a dust storm, we fell into disorder.
Deceived by his friends, he lost all hope.
Driven by hunger, beggar stole a piece of bread.
I saw a few trees laden with fruit.
The fact of the body is fuel laid away for use.
Books read in childhood seem like old friends.
Lessons learned easily are soon forgotten.
Overcome by remorse he determined to atone for his crime.
(3) Perfect Participle –
Note : (i) एक काम पूरा होने के बाद जब दूसरा काम use होता है।
(ii) इसको भी अपना subject चाहिए होता है। जैसे :-
Having reached home, he took his meal.
Having seen the movie once, I do not want to see it again.
Having opened the gate we entered.
Having resolved on a certain course, she acted with vigour.
Note : उपरोक्त sentences में क्रमश: He, I, We, She participles के subjects हैं क्योंकि अलग से इनके कोई subjects use किये हुए नहीं हैं।