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Active-Passive Voice

Verb – According to its Voice
Active Voice (Active Verb) : 1. Subject is important, 2. Object is less important, 3. Any form of the Verb can be used (I, II, III, IV)
Passive Voice (Passive Verb) : 1. Object is important, 2. Subject is less important, 3. Only III verb is used

Important Points
1. Passive Voice सिर्फ Transitive Verb का ही बनाया जा सकता है।
2. Passive Voice main verb का बनता है।
3. Passive Voice में use होने वाली Helping Verbs (Is/are/am/, was/were/, be/being/been)
4. Passive Voice बनाते समय Subject तथा Object आपस में बदल जाते हैं।
5. Voice में change होने वाले Pronouns –
Subject Pronouns : I Person–Singular (I), Plural (We), II Person–Singular (You), Plural (You), III Person–Singular (He, She), Plural (They)
Object Pronouns : I Person–Singular (Me), Plural (Us), II Person–Singular (You), Plural (You), III Person–Singular (Him, Her), Plural (Them)

Change of Voice
(A) I Verb - Present Indefinite Tense
Sentence structure
Subject + I verb + Object - (A)
Object + Is/are/am III verb + by + Subject - (P)
Note : इस तरह से Present Indefinite Tense को दो तरह से use किया जा सकता है। यदि Verb Transitive हो।
I Verb = Is/are/am III verb
1. The gardener plucks flowers. (A)
Flowers are plucked by the gardener. (P)
2. He teaches me. (A)
I am taught by him. (P)
3. She writes a novel. (A)
A novel is written by her. (P)

(B) II Verb - Past Indefinite Tense
Sentence structure
Subject + II verb + Object - (A)
Object + Was/were III verb + by + Subject - (P)
Note : इस तरह से Past Indefinite Tense को भी दो तरह से use किया जा सकता है। यदि Verb Transitive हो।
II Verb = was/were III verb
1. The gardener plucked flowers. (A)
Flowers were plucked by the gardener. (P)
2. He taught me.(A)
I was taught by him.(P)
3. She wrote a novel.(A)
A novel was written by her.(P)
Important : Is/are/am/was/were – Their uses
1. जब अकेली use होती है main verb बन जाती है।
2. जब III verb के साथ use होती है Passive बन जाती है।
3. जब IV verb के साथ use होती है तो continuous बन जाती है।
4. जब being III verb के साथ use होती है तो Passive voice बन जाती है।

(C) III Verb
Important
(i) Perfection दर्शाती है।
(ii) इसे तीनों Tense में use किया जाता है।
(iii) III verb का Passive ‘been III verb’ होता है।
(i) has/have III verb – Present Perfect Tense
Sentence structure
Subject + has/have III verb + Object – (A)
Object + has/have been III verb + by + Subject – (P)
1. I have done a lot of work today. (A)
A lot of work has been done by me today. (P)
2. She has written many novels. (A)
Many novels have been written by her. (P)
(ii) had III verb – Past Perfect Tense
Sentence structure
Subject + had III verb + Object – (A)
Object + had been III verb + by + Subject – (P)
1. He had finished the work before the manager came. (A)
The work had been finished by him before the manager came. (P)
(iii) Will/shall have III verb – Future Perfect Tense
Sentence structure
Subject + will/shall have III verb + Object – (A)
Object + will/shall have been III verb + by + Subject – (P)
1. He will have submitted the report by now. (A)
The report will have been submitted by him by now. (P)
Important : Has/have/had – Their uses
1. जब अकेली use होती है तो main verb के रूप में use होती है।
2. जब III verb के साथ use होती है तो Perfect Tense बन जाती है।
3. जब been III verb के साथ use होती है तो Passive होती है।
4. जब been IV verb के साथ use होते है तो Perfect continuous बन जाती है।

(D) IV Verb
Important
(i) Continuity दर्शाती है।
(ii) इसे भी तीनों Tense में use किया जाता है।
(iii) IV verb का Passive ‘being III verb’ होता है।
(i) Is/are/am IV verb – Present continuous Tense
Sentence structure
Subject + Is/are/am IV verb + Object – (A)
Object + Is/are/am being III verb + by + Subject – (P)
1. The boy is climbing a cliff. (A)
A cliff is being climbed by the boy. (P)
2. He is teaching me. (A)
I am being taught by him. (P)
3. They are making kites. (A)
Kites are being made by them. (P)
(ii) Was/were IV verb – Past Continuous Tense
Sentence structure
Subject + was/were IV verb + Object – (A)
Object + was/were/ being III verb + by + Subject – (P)
1. The boy was climbing a cliff. (A)
A cliff was being climbed by the boy. (P)
2. He was teaching me. (A)
I was being taught by him. (P)
3. They were making kites. (A)
Kites were being made by them. (P)
(iii) Will/shall be IV verb – Future Continuous Tense (No Passive Voice)
Sentence structure
Subject + will/shall be IV verb + Object. (A)
Object + will/shall be being III verb + by + Subject. (P)
Note : एक ही Sentence में एक ही verb की दो forms कभी भी use नहीं हो सकती। जैसे- ‘be being’ दोनों इसलिए इस Tense/verb का Passive नहीं बन सकता।

(E) Perfect Continuous Tenses (No Passive Voice)
Present Perfect Continuous Tense
Sentence structure
Subject + has/have been IV verb + Object. (A)
Object + has/have been being III verb + by + Subject. (P)
Note : इस Tense में भी एक ही verb की दो forms एक साथ use होती है। इसलिए इसका भी Passive नहीं बन सकता। इस तरह से यही condition Past और Future में भी होती है, इसलिए इनका भी Passive Voice नहीं बन सकता।

(F) Future Indefinite Tense
Sentence structure
Subject + will/shall I verb + Object – (A)
Object + will/shall be III verb + by + Subject – (P)
1. I will solve the problem. (A)
The problem will be solved by me. (P)
2. She will teach my brother tomorrow. (A)
My brother will be taught by her tomorrow. (P)

(G) Passive Voice from Modals
Sentence structure
Subject + Modal I verb + Object – (A)
Object + Modal be III verb + by + Subject – (P)
Modals are – will, shall, can, could, would, should, may, might, used to, must, ought to, dare, need.
1. She will sing a song. (A)
A song will be sung by her. (P)
2. She should sing a song. (A)
A song should be sung by her. (P)
3. She must sing a song. (A)
A song must be sung by her. (P)
4. You ought to help him. (A)
He ought to be helped by you. (P)

(H) Passive Voice from Double Object Sentences.
Sentence structure
Subject + verb + Object Indirect + Object Direct – (A)
Object Indirect + III verb + Object Direct + by Subject – (P)
Object Direct + III verb + to/for + Object Indirect + by + Subject – (P)
Important Points :
(i) दोनों ही Objects से Passive बन सकते हैं।
(ii) जब Direct Object से Passive बनाते हैं तो Indirect Object के पहले ‘to/for’ use करना पड़ता है।
(iii) Direct और Indirect Object को आपस में बदला जा सकता है तब Sentence का Structure इस तरह से होगा -
Subject + verb + Object Direct + to/for + Object Indirect
(iv) कुछ Double Object verbs के साथ ‘To’ use होता है।
Give, grant, hand, lend, offer, pass, mail, pay, post, sell, send, teach, tell, write etc.
(v) कुछ Double object verbs के साथ ‘for’ use होता है।
Bring, build, buy, fetch, prepare, purchase, cook, make, etc.
1. He gave me some important information. (A)
2. He gave some important information to me. (A)
I was given some important information by him. (P)
Some important information was given to me by him. (P)
3. She prepared me some coffee. (A)
I was prepared some coffee by her. (P)
Some coffee was prepared for me by her. (P)
4. She prepared some coffee for me. (A)
Some coffee was prepared for me by her. (P)
I was prepared some coffee by her. (P)

(I) Passive Voice from Interrogative sentences
(i) Interrogative Sentences by Helping Verb
Sentence structure
H.V. + Subject + Verb + Object ? (A)
H.V. + Object + III verb + by + Subject ? (P)
1. Do you like her ? (A)
Is she liked by you ? (P)
Note : यदि यही Sentence Double Object में हो तो -
H.V.+Subject+Verb+Object Indirect+Object Direct? (A)
H.V. + Object Indirect + III verb + Object Direct + by + Subject ? (P)
H.V. + Object Direct + III verb + to/for + Object Indirect + by + Subject? (A)
1. Did he give you the keys ? (A)
Were you given the keys by him ? (P)
Were the keys given to you by him ? (P)
(ii) Interrogative Sentences by Wh-word
Sentence structure
Wh-word + H.V. + Subject + Verb + Object ? (A)
Wh-word + H.V. + Object + III verb + by + Subject ? (P)
2. Why did you help him ? (A)
Why was he helped by you ? (P)
Note : यदि यही Sentence Double Object में हो तो -
3. Why did you give him the keys ? (A)
Why was he given the key by you ? (P)
Why were the keys given to him by you ? (P)
Important Points :
(i) Who, Whom तथा What Wh-word होने के साथ-साथ Pronouns भी होते हैं, इसलिए इनका Sentence Structure अलग होता है।
(ii) Who तथा What जब Subject होते हैं तब इन के साथ Helping Verb के रूप में ‘Do/Does/Did’ use नहीं होते है।
(a) Who+ verb + Object ? (A)
By whom + H.V. + Object + III verb ? (P)
Who teaches her ? (A)
By whom is she taught ? (P)
Note : यही Sentence यदि Double Object होता है तो -
(b) Who + verb + Object Indirect + Object Direct ? (A)
By whom + H.V. + Object Indirect + III verb + Object Direct ? (P)
By whom + H.V. + Object Direct + III verb + to/for + Object Indirect?(P)
Note : By को यदि sentence के अंत में use किया जाता है तो sentence ‘who’ से शुरू होता है न कि ‘whom’ से।
Who teaches her English ? (A)
By whom is she taught English ? (P)
Who is she taught English by ? (P)
By whom is English taught to her ? (P)
Who is English taught to her by ? (P)
(c) What + Verb + Object ? (A)
What + H.V. + Object + III verb + by ? (P)
What delights him ? (A)
What is he delighted by ? (P)
Note : What के पहले कोई preposition use नहीं होता है इसलिए उसे sentence के end में लगाया जाता है।
(d) What + H.V. + Subject + Verb ? (A)
What + H.V. + III verb + by + Subject ? (P)
What do you like ? (A)
What is liked by you ? (P)
What did she like ? (A)
What was liked by her ? (P)
Note : ‘What’ इन Sentences में Object के रूप में use हुआ है, इसलिए इसके साथ ‘Do/Did’ use हुए हैं।
(e) Whom + H.V. + Subject + Verb ? (A)
Who + H.V. + III verb + by + Subject ? (P)
Whom do you love ? (A)
Who is loved by you ? (P)
Whom did she teach ? (A)
Who was taught by her ? (P)
Note : यही Sentence यदि Double Object में होता है तो -
Whom (IO) + H.V. + (Subject) + Verb + Direct Object ? (A)
Who + H.V. + III verb + Direct Object + by + Subject ? (P)
To/for whom + H.V. + Direct + III verb + by + Subject ? (P)
Whom did she teach English ? (A)
Who was taught English by her ? (P)
To whom was English taught by her ? (P)
Whom does she bring these flowers ? (A)
Who is brought these flowers by her ? (P)
For whom are these flowers brought by her ? (P)

(J) Passive Voice from Imperative Sentences
इनमें निम्नलिखित conditions हो सकती है-
Sentence structures
(a) I verb + Object – (A)
Let + Object + be III verb – (P)
(b) I Verb + Object Indirect + Object Direct – (A)
Let + Object Indirect + be III verb + Object Direct – (P)
Let + Object Direct + be III verb + to/for + Object Indirect – (P)
(c) Let + Object + I verb – (A)
Object + should be allowed to + I verb – (P)
(d) Let + Object (i) + I verb + Object (ii) – (A)
Object (i) + should be allowed to + I verb + Object (ii) – (P)
Let + Object (ii) + be III verb + by + Object (i) – (P)
(e) Please/Kindly, I verb + Object – (A)
You are requested to + I verb + Object – (P)
(f) Imperative Sentence में Intransitive verb का Passive Voice उसके hidden meaning के अनुसार बनता है -
– You are requested to ................. (Request)
– You are ordered/told/commanded to ................. (Order)
– You are advised to ................. (Advice)
– You are forbidden/denied to ................. (Negation)
1. Help me . (A)
Let me be helped. (P)
2. Give me some money. (A)
Let me be given some money. (P)
Let some money be given to me. (P)
3. Let him sit alone. (A)
He should be allowed to sit alone. (P)
4. Let him write a letter. (A)
He should be allowed to write a letter. (P)
Let a letter be written by him. (P)
5. Help me, please. (A)
You are requested to help me. (P)
6. Come here, please. (A)
You are requested to come here. (P)
7. Get out of my sight. (A)
You are ordered to get out of my sight. (P)
8. Never tell a lie. (A)
You are forbidden to tell a lie. (P)
9. Don’t join bad company, Neetu. (A)
Neetu, you are advised not to join bad company. (P)
Note : Don’t + I verb = not to I verb जैसे :-
Don’t go there = not to go there.

(K) Passive Voice from Infinitive (To + I verb)
Sentence structure
(a) Subject + be + to + I verb + Object – (A)
Object + be + to be III verb + by + Subject – (P)
Be = is/are/am/was/were
1. I am to write a letter. (A)
A letter is to be written by me. (P)
2. They have to do the work. (A)
The work has to be done by them. (P)
3. We are to take lunch. (A)
Lunch is to be taken by us. (P)
4. She is to cook food. (A)
Food is to be cooked by her. (P)
(b) Subject + have+to+verb+Object (A)
Object + have+to be III verb + by + subject (P)
Have = has/have/had
I have to write a letter (A)
A letter has to be written by me (P)
(c) It is time to I Verb + Object (A)
It is time for object to be III verb. (P)
1. It is time to stop the work. (A)
It is time for the work to be stopped. (P)
2. It is time to call in the doctor. (A)
It is time for the doctor to be called in. (P)
Note : It is time वाले sentence में Object के पहले ‘for’ का use करना होता है।

(L) Where ‘by’ is not used
कुछ verbs ऐसी होती है जो Passive Voice में ‘by’ नहीं लेती है बल्कि कोई और preposition use होता है। जैसे :-
know, please, surprise, line, throng, contain, annoy, disgust, hold. etc.
1. She knows you very well. (A)
You are very well known to her. (P)
2. I can not please her. (A)
She can not be pleased with me. (P)
3. Your success surprised me. (A)
I was surprised at your success. (P)
4. The students lined the windows. (A)
The windows were lined with the students. (P)
5. The people thronged the street. (A)
The street was thronged with the people. (P)
6. This bottle contains medicine. (A)
Medicine is contained in this bottle. (P)
7. Your behaviour has annoyed her. (A)
She has been annoyed at your behaviour. (P)
8. You have disgusted me. (A)
I have been disgusted with you. (P)
9. India held the Asian Games. (A)
The Asian Games were held in India. (P)

(M) Passive Voice from Object Complement Sentences
Sentence structure
Subject + Verb + Object + Object Complement (A)
Object + III verb + Object Complement + by + Subject (P)
Note 1 : Object Complement से कभी भी Passive Voice नहीं बनता है - passive हमेशा object से बनता है।
Note 2 : कुछ verbs जिन्हें Object Complement की आवश्यकता होती है।
Note 3 : Object Complement के रूप में Noun, Adjective, IV verb, V verb तथा I verb use हो सकती है।
Believe, consider, find, judge, make, name, think, prove, appoint, elect, choose, crown etc.
1. I think her attractive. (A)
She is thought attractive by me. (P)
2 She considers me smart. (A)
I am considered smart by her. (P)
3. The chairman made the committee a failure. (A)
The committee was made a failure by the chairman. (P)
4. We proved him guilty. (A)
He was proved guilty by us. (P)
5. My parents named me Sovu. (A)
I was named Sovu by my parents. (P)
6. We chose him our leader. (A)
He was chosen our leader by us. (P)
7. She kept me waiting. (A)
I was kept waiting by her. (P)
8. She asked me to wait. (A)
I was asked to wait by her. (P)
9. She made me run. (A)
I was made to run by her. (P)

(N) जब Infinitive (without ‘To’) Object Complement होता है तो-
Sentence structure
Subject + Verb + Object + Infinitive (without ‘to’) (A)
Object + III verb + to + I verb + by + Subject (P)
इस structure में use होने वाली कुछ verbs –
See, watch, notice, observe, hear, listen, behold, feel, make, let, help, bid, etc.
1. I saw him go out. (A)
He was seen to go out by me. (P)
2. She watched him steal the watch. (A)
He was watched to steal the watch by her. (P)
3 We heard her sing. (A)
She was heard to sing by us. (P)
3 The thief felt someone touch his arm. (A)
Someone was felt to touch the thief’s arm. (P)
4 We made Tom run fast. (A)
Tom was made to run fast by us. (P)
5 She bade me go. (A)
I was bidden to go by her. (P)
6 She let the bucket fall into the well. (A)
The bucket was let fall into the well by her. (P)
Note : ‘Let’ के साथ use होने वाला Infinitive Active और Passive दोनों में ही ‘To’ नहीं लेता है।

(O) जब ‘That Clause’ Object के रूप में use होता है तो इसका Passive Voice ‘It’ से बनता है -
Sentence structure
Subject + verb + that clause – (A)
It + Hv + III verb + that clause + by + subject. (P)
कुछ verbs जो इस structure में use होती है -
Say, think, suppose, imagine, know, believe, admit, confess, declare, suggest, hope, expect, fear, feel, hear, intend, notice, propose, show, understand etc.
1. He says that he has met your uncle. (that clause)
It is said that he has met your uncle by him.
It is said by him that he has met your uncle.
2. Padma suggested that we should to go the park. (that clause)
It was suggested that we should go to the park by Padma
It was suggested by Padma that we should go to the park.
3. We hoped that you would succeed. (that clause)
It was hoped that you would succeed by us.
It was hoped by us that you would succeed.

(P) जब Wh-word + Infinitive Object बनता है तो उसका Passive Voice भी ‘It’ से बनता है -
Sentence structure
Subject + verb + Wh-word + Infinitive (to + I verb) (A)
It + Hv + III verb + by + Subject + Wh-word + Infinitive (P)
इस structure में use होने वाली कुछ verbs –
Know, understand, wonder, remember, forget, decide, settle, find out, explain, guess, learn, etc.
1. I do not know how to do it. (A)
It is not known to me how to do it. (P)
2. Tom couldn’t decide what to do next. (A)
It couldn’t be decided by Tom what to do next. (P)
3. We must find out where to put it. (A)
It must be find out by us where to put it. (P)

4. She enquired how to settle this matter. (A)
It was enquired by her how to settle this matter. (P)

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