+91-93145-11742
+91-93145-11742
sawan
Verb : Tenses

Main Verb : Indefinite – I Verb, Indefinite – II Verb, Perfect – III Verb, Continuous – IV Verb
Helping Verb : Present (i) Do/Does – Indefinite, (ii) Is/are/am – Continuous, (iii) has/have – Perfect, Past (i) Did – Indefinite, (ii) was/were – Continuous, (iii) had – Perfect, Future (i) Will/Shall – Indefinite
Note : (i) ‘Tense’ का अपना अलग से कोई अस्तित्व नहीं होता हैं।
(ii) ‘Tense’ verb की nature पर निर्भर करता है।
(iii) ‘Tenses’ मुख्य रूप से तीन समय (Time) दर्शाते हैं। ‘Present, ‘Past’ and ‘Future’.
(iv) Tenses को समझने के लिए verb का nature समझना जरूरी होता है।
(v) ‘Tenses’ को समझने के लिए Be ( I verb), being (IV verb), been (III verb) को समझना जरूरी है क्योंकि इन verbs को main verb और Helping verb दोनों ही तरह से use किया जाता है।

Nature of the Verbs
I Verb (Present Indefinite Tense)
Its nature and function
1. यह verb अपने आप में Indefinite होती है।
2. यह verb ऐसे Action दर्शाती है जो या तो Indefinite होते हैं या फिर मनुष्य के आपे से बाहर होते हैं। जैसे -
(a) Habitual Actions
(b) Universal या General truths
(c) Order, Command या Request
(d) Commentary on sporting events
(e) Newspaper headlines के लिए।
(f) Fixed Time-table या Programme
(g) Proverbs and saying के लिए।
3. I verb से बनने वाला Tense - Present Indefinite Tense होता है।
4. इस Tense में use होने वाले कुछ Adverb तथा Adverb Phrases – निम्न होते हैं-
Always, often, frequently, rarely, generally, sometimes, usually, every day, every week, every month, every year, once a week, twice a week, several times a week. etc.
5. Sentence Structure
(a) Affirmative Sentence
– Subject + I Verb + Object
(b) Negative Sentence
– Subject + do/does not I verb + Object.
(c) Interrogative Sentence
Do/Does + Subject + I verb + Object ? (By helping verb)
– Wh-word + do/does + Subject + I verb + Object ? (By Wh-word)
(d) Interrogative Negative Sentence
– Do/Does + Subject + not I verb + Object ? (By helping verb)
– Wh-word + do/does + Subject + not I verb + Object ? (By Wh-word)
(e) Imperative Sentence
– I verb + Object (Positive)
– Do not I verb + Object (Negative)
Note –
(i) Sentence में Object का होना जरूरी नहीं होता है। यदि Verb Transitive है तो Object होगा नहीं तो नहीं।
(ii) Sentences जिनमें I Verb होती है, उनका हिन्दी अनुवाद अक्सर ता है/ती है/ते हैं, से होता है। लेकिन यह जरूरी नहीं होता।

II Verb (Past Indefinite Tense)
Its nature and function.
1. यह verb भी अपने आप में Indefinite होती है।
2. Habitual actions in the past.
3. Actions took place in the past.
4. इस verb के साथ कभी भी कोई Helping verb use होती ही नहीं है।
5. II verb से बनने वाला Tense - Past Indefinite Tense होता है।
6. इस Tense में use होने वाले कुछ Adverbs तथा Adverb Phrases – निम्न होते हैं-
yesterday, last night, last week, last year, a few moments ago, a few minutes ago, three days ago, a long time ago etc.
7. Sentence Structure
(a) Affirmative
– Subject + II verb + Object.
(b) Negative
– Subject + did not I verb + Object.
(c) Interrogative
– Did + Subject + I verb + Object ? (By helping verb)
– Wh-word + did + Subject + I verb + Object ? (By Wh-word)
(d) Interrogative Negative
– Did + Subject + not I verb + Object ? (By helping verb)
– Wh-word + did + Subject + not I verb + Object ? (By Wh-word)
Note –
(i) Sentence में Object का होना जरूरी नहीं होता।
(ii) Sentence जिनमें II verb होती है, उनका हिन्दी अनुवाद 'था/थी/थे' या 'या' होता है लेकिन जरूरी नहीं है।

III Verb (Perfect Tenses)
Its nature and function
1. यह verb हमेशा Perfection (पूर्णता) दर्शाती हैं।
2. इसे कभी भी अकेला use नहीं किया जा सकता। इसके साथ कोई न कोई Helping verb use होती है।
3. इस verb को Present, Past, और Future तीनों Time के लिए use किया जा सकता है।

III Verb – Present (Present Perfect Tense)
4. Sentence Structure
(a) Affirmative
– Subject + has/have III verb + Object.
(b) Negative
– Subject + has/have not III verb + Object.
(c) Interrogative
– Has/Have + Subject + III verb + Object ? (By helping verb)
– Wh - word + has/have + Subject + III verb + Object ? (By wh-word)
(d) Interrogative Negative
– Has/Have + Subject + not III verb + Object ? (By helping verb)
– Wh - word + has/have + Subject + not III Verb + Object. (By Wh-word)
5. Has/Have III verb से बनने वाला Tense, Present Perfect Tense होता है।
6. इस Tense में use होने वाले कुछ Adverbs –
Now, just, today, this morning, this week, this month, this year, still, ever, never, not yet, already, recently, lately, up to now, for, since etc.
7. Present Perfect Tense निम्न परिस्थितियों में use किया जाता है।
(i) इसमें Action के खत्म होने और कहने में समय का अन्तराल नहीं होता।
for completed activities with ‘just’
1. I have just taken lunch.
2. She has just gone out.
3. It has just struck eleven.
(ii) जब कोई काम Past में शुरू होता है, Present में continue होता है, Continuity स्पष्ट नहीं होती हो,और काम शुरू होने का समय दिया हुआ होता है - जैसे -
1. I have known you since birth.
2. She has been unconscious for several days.
3. He has been ill for a long time.
4. We have lived here for many days.
(iii) एक ऐसा Past Action जिसमें समय दिया हुआ नहीं होता है और Indefinite होता है। जैसे -
1. Have you seen the Taj ?
2. Have you ever gone to Mumbai ?
3. Have you read Gulliver’s Travels ?
4. Mr. Harit has been to Japan.

III Verb – Past (Past Perfect Tense)
1. Sentence Structure
(a) Affirmative
– Subject + had III verb + Object.
(b) Negative
– Subject + had not III verb + Object.
(c) Interrogative
– Had + Subject + III verb + Object ? (By helping verb)
– Wh - word + had + Subject + III verb + Object ? (By Wh-word)
(d) Interrogative Negative
– Had + Subject + not III verb + Object ? (By helping verb)
® Wh - word + had + Subject + not III Verb + Object ? (By Wh-word)
2. Had III verb से बनने वाला Tense-Past Perfect Tense होता है।
3. Past Perfect Tense कभी भी अकेला use नहीं होता इसके साथ दूसरा Action चाहिए होता है।
3. इसके साथ जुडऩे वाला जुड़ने Time clause after, before, when, until, या as soon as से बना होता है।

III Verb – Future (Future Perfect Tense)
1. Sentence Structure
(a) Affirmative
– Subject + will/shall have III verb + Object.
(b) Negative
– Subject + will/shall not have III verb + Object.
(c) Interrogative
– Will/Shall + Subject + have III verb + Object ? (By helping verb)
– Wh - word + will/shall + Subject + have III verb + Object ? (By Wh-word)
(d) Interrogative Negative
– Will/Shall + Subject + not have III verb + Object ? (By helping verb)
– Wh - word + will/shall + Subject + not have III Verb + Object ? (By Wh-word)
2. will/shall have III verb से बनने वाला Tense Future Perfect Tense होता है।
3. किसी काम को Future में एक निश्चित समय तक पूरा बताने के लिए इसे use किया जाता है। जैसे :-
1. I shall have completed my home work by this evening.
2. She will have submitted her assignment by next Tuesday.
3. By the end of the month, I will have worked for 3 years.

IV Verb (Continuous Tenses)
Its nature and function.
1. यह verb हमेशा continuity दर्शाती है (किसी काम का जारी होना।)
2. इसे कभी भी अकेला use नहीं किया जा सकता। इसके साथ कोई न कोई Helping verb use होती है।
3. इस verb को भी तीनों Tenses में (Present, Past, Future) में use किया जा सकता है।

IV Verb – Present (Present Continuous Tense)
1. Sentence Structure
(a) Affirmative
– Subject + is/are/am IV verb + Object.
(b) Negative
– Subject + is/are/am not IV verb + Object.
(c) Interrogative
– Is/are/am + Subject + IV verb + Object ? (By helping verb)
– Wh - word + is/are/am + Subject + IV verb + Object ? (By Wh-word)
(d) Interrogative Negative
– Is/are/am + Subject + not IV verb + Object ? (By helping verb)
– Wh - word + is/are/am + Subject + not IV verb + Object ? (By Wh-word)
2. Is/are/am IV verb से बनने वाला Tense Present Continuous होता है।
3. इस Tense को निम्नलिखित परिस्थितियों में use किया जाता है -
(i) कहने के समय काम का जारी होना। जैसे -
1. The children are playing out side.
2. My finger is bleeding.
इस Tense में use होने वाले कुछ Adverbs -
Now, at present, at this moment, still etc.
(ii) कुछ ऐसे Temporary action जो जारी होते है तो लेकिन कहने के समय जारी होना जरूरी नहीं होते। जैसे - I am reading ‘As you like it.’ (But I am not reading at this moment.)
(iii) इसी Tense को Future Meaning के लिए use किया जाता हैं, जब कोई काम पहले से arranged हो। इसके साथ use होने वाले कुछ adverbs–
Soon, this evening, tomorrow, next week, tonight, in a few minutes, next year, next summer, later this year/ month/ week etc.
जैसे :-
1. We are visiting the Vaishnavs this evening. 2. My uncle is arriving tomorrow.
3. Are you going to the concert tonight ?
(iv) Some Non-conclusive Verbs – ये Verbs ऐसी होती है जिन्हें Continuous Tense (verb + ing) में use नहीं किया जा सकता है क्योंकि actions मर्जी से न तो चालू होते हैं, न ही रोके जा सकते हैं।
Following are the Principal verbs of this kind :–
1. Sensations : Smell, hear, see, notice, recognize, taste etc.
2. Mental Process : Think, believe, know, remember, forget, suppose, understand, agree, consider, trust, imagine, mean etc.
3. Desires : Want, wish, desire, need, etc.
4. Likes and Dislikes : Like, dislike, love, hate, detest, prefer, mind, hope, feel, refuse etc.
5. Appearance : Seem, appear, resemble, look etc.
6. Possession : Have, own, possess, belong to, contain, consist of etc.

IV Verb – Past (Past Continuous Tense)
1. Sentence Structure
(a) Affirmative
– Subject + was/were IV verb + Object.
(b) Negative
– Subject + was/were not IV verb + Object.
(c) Interrogative
– Was/Were + Subject + IV verb + Object ? (By helping verb)
– Wh - word + was/were + Subject + IV verb + Object ? (By Wh-word)
(d) Interrogative Negative
– Was/Were + Subject + not IV verb + Object ? (By helping verb)
– Wh - word + was/were + Subject + not IV verb + Object ? (By Wh-word)
2. was/were IV verb से बनने वाला Tense, Past Continuous होता है।
3. इसे Past में continuous actions के लिए use किया जाता है जिसके beginning और end से कोई मतलब नहीं होता।
4. इस Tense को अक्सर II verb (Past Indefinite Tense) के साथ use किया जाता है।

IV Verb – Future (Future Continuous Tense)
1. Sentence Structure
(a) Affirmative
– Subject + will/shall be IV verb + Object.
(b) Negative
– Subject + will/shall not be IV verb + Object.
(c) Interrogative
– Will/Shall + Subject + be IV verb + Object ? (By helping verb)
– Wh - word + will/shall + Subject + be IV verb + Object ? (By Wh-word)
(d) Interrogative Negative
– Will/Shall + Subject + not be IV verb + Object ? (By helping verb)
– Wh - word + will/shall + Subject + not be IV verb + Object ? (By Wh-word)
2. will/shall be IV verb से बनने वाला Tense, Future Continuous Tense होता है।
3. Future में continuity बताने के लिए use किया जाता है। जैसे :-
1. At this time tomorrow I will be enjoying myself at the concert.
2. I will be watching the cricket match on T.V.

PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSES
इन Tense को भी तीनों Times में use किया जा सकता है।
Present Perfect Continuous Tense
1. Sentence Structure
(a) Affirmative
– Subject + has/have been IV verb + Object.
(b) Negative
– Subject + has/have not been IV verb + Object.
(c) Interrogative
– Has/Have + Subject + been IV verb + Object ? (By helping verb)
– Wh - word + has/have + Subject + been IV verb + Object ? (By Wh-word)
(d) Interrogative Negative
– Has/Have + Subject + not been IV verb + Object ? (By helping verb)
– Wh - word + has/have + Subject + not been IV verb + Object. (By Wh-word)
Note : has/have + been + IV verb
2. यह Tense उस Action के लिए use किया जाता है जो शुरू तो Past में होता है और Present में जारी होता है और समय (Time) का जिक्र होता है और continuity स्पष्ट होती है। जैसे :-
(1) He has been reading the newspaper since morning.
(2) They have been building the bridge for several months.
(3) They have been playing the cricket match since five O’ clock.
3. इस Tense में ‘Since’ और ‘For’ Time Reference के लिए use होता है।

Time Reference
1. Since : Point of Time इसमें काम शुरू होने का निश्चित समय पता होता है। Morning, afternoon, evening, tomorrow, yesterday, birth, death, 2 O’clock, Monday, January, 15 June, 1972, etc.
2. For : Period of Time इसमें काम शुरू होने का निश्चित समय पता नहीं होता है। 3 days, a week, an hour, a year, a month, etc.

Past Perfect Continuous Tense
1. Sentence Structure
(a) Affirmative
– Subject + had been IV verb + Object.
(b) Negative
– Subject + had not been IV verb + Object.
(c) Interrogative
– Had + Subject + been IV verb + Object ? (By helping verb
– Wh - word + had + Subject + been IV verb + Object ? (By Wh-word)
(d) Interrogative Negative
– Had + Subject + not been IV verb + Object ? (By helping verb
– Wh - word + had + Subject + not been IV verb + Object ? (By Wh-word)
Note : had + been + IV verb (Perfection)

2. इस Tense में भी समय का जिक्र होता है। जैसे :-
1. He had been writing a story book for two months.
2. Mr. Rohit had already been teaching there for 4 years.

Future Perfect Continuous Tense
1. Sentence Structure
(a) Affirmative
– Subject + will/shall have been IV verb + Object.
(b) Negative
– Subject + will/shall not have been IV verb + Object.
(c) Interrogative
– Will/Shall + Subject + have been IV verb + Object ? (By helping verb)
– Wh - word + will/Shall + subject + have been IV verb + Object ? (By Wh-word)
(d) Interrogative Negative
– Will/Shall + Subject + not have been IV verb + Object ? (By helping verb
– Wh - word + Will/Shall + Subject + not have been IV verb + Object ? (By Wh-word)
2. इस Tense में भी समय का जिक्र होता है। जैसे :-
1. She will have been singing since morning.
2. He will have been sleeping for hours.

Future Indefinite Tense
1. Sentence Structure
(a) Affirmative
– Subject + will/shall I verb + Object.
(b) Negative
– Subject + will/shall not I verb + Object.
(c) Interrogative
– Will/shall + Subject + I verb + Object ? (By helping verb)
– Wh - word + will/shall + Subject + I verb + Object ? (By Wh-word)
(d) Interrogative Negative
– Will/Shall + Subject + not I verb + Object ? (By helping verb)
– Wh - word + will/shall + Subject + not I verb + Object ? (By Wh-word)
2. Future Indefinite Tense निम्न conditions में use किया जाता है -
(i) Factual Future के लिए (उन चीजों के लिए जिन्हें हम रोक (Control) नहीं सकते)
1.I shall be thirty two next month.
2. It will be Diwali in a week.
(ii) Think, sure, expect, believe तथा Probably के साथ अक्सर इस Tense को ही use किया जाता है। जैसे :-
1. I think India will win the match.
2. I am sure Yash will get a first prize.
3. I expect it will rain soon.
(iii) इस Tense को ‘going to’ से भी use किया जा सकता है। ‘going to’ Intention दर्शाता हैं। जैसे :-
1. I am going to sell my car after Diwali.
2. Are you going to meet your friends at the airport ?
3. It looks as if it is going to be very hot today.
4. I think that tree is going to die soon.
(iv) इस Tense को be + about to + I verb से दर्शाया जा सकता है। (यह immediate future बताता है।)
1. Let us get into the train. It is about to leave.
2. Don’t go out now. We are about to have lunch.
3. Hurry up. The programme is about to start.
3. इस Tense में use होने वाले कुछ Adverbs – soon, shortly, tonight, tomorrow, next week/ month/ year etc.

Some Most Important Points
(A) I verb के साथ use होने वाली दूसरी verbs या Tenses –
I Verb (Present Indefinite Tense)
(1) Is/are/am IV verb (Present continuous)
(2) has/have III verb (Present Perfect)
(3) will/shall I Verb (Future Indefinite)
(4) Will/shall be IV verb (Future Continuous)
(5) will/shall have III verb (Future Perfect)
(6) Will/shall have been IV verb (Future Perfect continuous)

1. The Present Indefinite Tense and The Present Continuous Tense
(I Verb – Is/are/am IV verb) जैसे :-
1. Do not disturb me because I am studying.
2. Rohini generally cooks on the electric stove, but today she is cooking on the oil stove.
3. William usually plays chess every afternoon, but now he is playing cards.

2. The Present Indefinite Tense and the Present Perfect Tense
(I Verb – has/have III verb)
Note : यह condition तब apply होती है जब present में काम पूरा होने के just बाद कोई दूसरा काम होता है। जैसे :-
(1) Come and see me when you have taken your dinner.
(2) Go there as soon as you have finished your work.
(3) Drop the letter as you have written it.

3. The Present Indefinite Tense and The Future Indefinite Tense
(I Verb – will/shall I verb) or
The Present Perfect Tense and The Future Indefinite Tense
(has/have III verb – will/shall I verb)
Note :
(i) जब दो काम Future में होते है तो जो काम पहले होता है उसमें ‘I verb या has/have III verb use होती है तथा जो काम बाद में होता है उसमें will/shall I verb use होती है।
(ii) इसमें use होने वाले Time clause [when, until, as soon as, before, after, now that, the moment that, by the time that] से बने होते हैं।
(iii) After, now that तथा when (जब After के अर्थ में use लिए आता है) के बाद Present Perfect ही use होता है। जैसे :-
(1) They cannot leave until they have done their work.
(2) They cannot leave until they do their work.
(3) He will come as soon as he finishes his work.
(4) He will come as soon as he has finished his work.
Note : Sentence 1 & 2 तथा 3 & 4 के meaning same है

4. The Present Indefinite Tense and The Future Continuous Tense
(I verb – will/shall be IV verb)
(1) My wife will be waiting for me when I reach home.
(2) My dog will be sitting on the gate waiting for me when I reach home.

5. The Present Indefinite Tense and The Future Perfect Tense
(I verb – will/shall have III verb) जैसे :-
(1) The Patient will have died before the doctor reaches there.
(2) The train will have left before we reach the station.
Note : जो काम पहले होता है, उसमें will/shall have III verb और जो काम बाद में होता है उसमें I verb use होती है।

6. The Present Indefinite Tense and The Future Perfect Continuous Tense (I verb – will/shall have been IV verb) जैसे :-
(1) My wife will have been waiting for me since 5 O’clock when I reach home.
(2) My dog will have been sitting on the gate for 3 hours when I reach there.
(B) II verb के साथ use होने वाली दूसरी verbs या Tenses –
II Verb (Past Indefinite Tense)
(1) was/were IV verb (Past continuous)
(2) had III verb (Past Perfect)
(3) had been IV Verb (Past Perfect Cont.)
1. The Past Indefinite Tense and The Past Continuous Tense
(II Verb – Was/were IV verb)
(1) The thief was running when the police caught him.
(2) The bus was moving when she jumped off it.
2. The Past Indefinite Tense and The Past Perfect Tense (II verb – Had III verb)
Note : जब दो काम past में होते हैं तो जो काम पहले होता है उसमें had III verb तथा जो काम बाद में होता है उसमें II verb use होती है। जैसे:-
(1) He returned home after he had left the office.
(2) I had already finished my work before my friends arrived.
3. The Past Indefinite Tense and The Past Perfect Continuous Tense (II verb – Had been IV verb) जैसे :-
(1) I had been waiting for you since morning when you came.
(2) She had been sleeping for 2 hours when you called her.

Courses
  • I-Grade
  • II-Grade
  • III-Grade
  • SSC(CGL/10+2)
  • Bank PO
  • Bank Clerk
  • IAS/RAS/RJS