Parts of Speech (Detailed Description : The Conjunction)

नीचे लिखे वाक्यों को ध्यान से पढ़ें -
1. He came to me and spoke against my wife.
2. You are free to choose a watch or a clock.
3. It is case of a miser and her money.
4. Did you know that she was a CEO ?
5. He will pass if he works hard.
6. I cannot see how she can win.
1. Co-ordinating Conjunctions
1. इन conjunctions से जुड़ने वाले clauses हमेशा Independent होते हैं।
2. Clauses एक ही जैसी Grammatical units के होते हैं।
2. Subordinating Conjunctions
1. इन conjunctions से जुड़ने वाले clauses में एक Main Clause तथा दूसरा Dependent Clause होता है।
2. इनसे जुड़ने वाले clauses अलग-अलग Grammatical units के होते हैं।
I. Co-ordinating Conjunctions
Co-ordinating Conjunctions are of four kinds :–
(1) Cumulative or Copulative. By these Conjunctions one statement or fact is simply added to another ; as,
And. –(i) Trust in God and do the right.
(ii) Be just and fear not.
Both...and. – (i) He was both fined and imprisoned.
(ii) Both you and your friend were there.
As well as. – (i) He as well as his brother is intelligent.
(ii) You as well as your wife are known to me.
No less than. – (i) He no less than his brother is guilty.
(ii) You no less than your wife are a busy person.
No only...but also. – (i) He was not only fined but also expelled.
(ii) Not only he but also his father is my friend.
(2) Alternative or Disjunctive. By these Conjunctions an alternative or choice is offered between one statement and another ; as,
Either...or. – (i) Either she is mad or she feigns madness.
(ii) She is either your mother or Rohan’s
Neither...nor. – (i) Neither a borrower nor a lender be.
(ii) She is neither mad nor over clever.
Or. – He must weep or he will die.
Otherwise, else. – Work hard, else (or otherwise) you will not succeed.
(3) Adversative. These Conjunctions express opposition or contrast between two statements ; as,
But. – He is slow, but he is sure.
Still, yet. – He is very rich, still (or yet) he is not satisfied.
Nevertheless. – He has no chance of success nevertheless he perseveres.
Whereas, while. – Wise men love virtue whereas (or while) fools shun it.
Only. – You may stay in the room only make no noise.
(4) Illative. By these Conjunctions one statement or fact is inferred or proved from another ; as,
Therefore. – He was found stealing and therefore he was arrested.
So, consequently. – He did not work so (or consequently) he failed.
For. – He will pass for he works very hard.

II. Subordinating Conjunctions
Subordinating Conjunctions can be classified as follows:–
(1) Of Time.
I would like to die before I lie.
Wait till (or until) I return.
Many things have happened here since you left.
Make hay while the sun shines.
He returned home after the sun had set.
(2) Of Cause or Reason.
I love her because she is a beautiful lady.
Since you desire it, I will go with him.
Let us go to bed as it is 12 O’ clock.
(3) Of Result or Consequence.
She wept so much that she lost her voice for a while.
He was so intelligent that he answered all the questions.
(4) Of Purpose.
We eat that we may live.
He worked hard so that he might pass.
Walk carefully lest you should fall.
(5) Of Condition.
I will dismiss you if you are late again.
I agree to these terms provided you agree to mine.
He ran as if he had been shot.
Unless you work you won’t be successful.
(6) Of Concession or Contrast.
A book’s a book although there is nothing in it.
He is an honest man although he is poor.
He is not satisfied though he is very rich.
He will never pass however hard he may try.
Though he is lame yet he can run very fast.
(7) Of Comparison.
He is as clever as I (am).
I like her as much as I (like you).
He likes me no less than you (he likes you).
He is more intelligent than you (are).
(8) Of Extent or Manner.
Men will reap as they sow.
He chose the candidates according as they were qualified.

III. Correlative Conjunctions
Certain Conjunctions are often used in pairs ; these are called Correlative Conjunctions. The commonest are :–
(1) Either...or.
She is either a rogue or a fool.
Either he is mistaken or I am.
(2) Neither...nor.
His wife was neither gay nor sad.
She is neither a rogue nor a fool.
(3) Though...yet.
Though he is dangerous yet I trust in him.
Though he is poor yet he is honest.
(4) Both...and.
His father is both a poet and a philosopher.
We both liked and honour her.
There is no such girl as you mention.
She is not such a woman as you admire.
(6) Such...that.
Such was his love for her that he sacrificed even his life for her sake.
(7) So/
He is not so poor as you think.
It is as clear as the sun.
As you sow, so shall you reap.
As the child is, so is the man.
(9) So...that.
I was so tired that I could not walk any farther.
He was so honest that nothing could tempt him to take the bribe.
(10) Scarcely...when.
He had scarcely recovered from fever when he caught a bad cold.
He had scarcely reached the station when it began to rain.
(11) Not only...but also.
He is not only a priest but also a doctor.
He is not only honest but sincere also.
He visited not only Mumbai but also Ooty.
Not only does he speak well, but he writes well also.
(12) No sooner...than.
No sooner did the bell ring than the boys left the class.
No sooner had she heard the news than she started off.
No sooner does he arrive than he begins to work.

Correct Usage
When the Correlative Conjunctions ‘either...or’, ‘neither...nor’, ‘both...and’, ‘not only...but also’ are used, care must be taken to place the first member (i.e., the words ‘either’, ‘neither’, ‘both’, ‘not only’) immediately before the words that are contrasted.
Incorrect : Your brother was either there or your cousin.
Correct : Either Your brother was there or your cousin. (was there)
Incorrect : Neither he is a rouge nor a madman.
Correct : He is neither a rogue nor a madman.
Incorrect : He both obtained a prize and a scholarship.
Correct : He obtained both a prize and a scholarship.
Incorrect : Not only he visited Delhi but also Agra.
Correct : He visited not only Delhi but also Agra.
Note : Verb agrees with the second subject when there are two subjects.
1. ‘Neither’ is always followed by ‘nor’.
I have neither written to her nor (not or) spoken to her.
Neither his sister nor (not or) his mother met me.
2. ‘Scarcely’ is followed by ‘when’, and not by ‘than’.
Scarcely had he left when (not than) a storm began to blow.
Scarcely had he reached the station when (not than) the train started.
3. ‘No sooner’ is followed by ‘than’, and not by ‘but’ or ‘when’.
No sooner had the fight begun than (not but) he ran away.
No sooner had he left than (not but) he came back again.
4. ‘Than’ is used as a Subordinating Conjunction. The Subordinate sentence introduced by ‘than’ is generally elliptical. So in order to determine the case of the word after ‘than’, the ellipsis must be supplied.
Incorrect : He is stronger than me.
Correct : He is stronger than I. [i.e., than I (am strong)]
Note the difference between these two sentences : –
(1) I love you better than him [= I love you better than (I love him)]
(2) I love you better than he [= I love you better than he (loves you)]
Also Note the following :–
Incorrect : He is as strong as me.
Correct : He is as strong as I (am).
Incorrect : She can jump as high as me.
Correct : She can jump as high as I (can jump).
5. ‘Rather’ and ‘Other’ are followed by ‘than’, and not by ‘but’.
Incorrect : I would have the watch rather but the pen.
Correct : I would have the watch rather than the pen.
Incorrect : She had no other hobby but that of collecting flowers.
Correct : She had no other hobby than that of collecting flowers.
6. The word ‘like’ is often wrongly used of ‘as’ ; as,
He did like he was told to do. [Say – ‘as’]
She dances like her mother does. [Say – ‘as’]
7. In contracted sentences Conjunctions are often wrongly omitted after Adjectives.
Incorrect : He is more polite but not so kind-hearted as his father.
Correct : He is more polite than, but not so kind-hearted as, his father.
Incorrect : He is as strong if not stronger than Ali.
Correct : He is as strong as, if not stronger than Ali.
8. ‘Unless’ means ‘if not’. Hence the word ‘not’ should not be introduced in the clause beginning with ‘unless’.
Incorrect : Unless you do not work hard, you will fail.
Correct : Unless you word hard, you will fail.
Incorrect : Unless you do not apologize, I shall punish you.
Correct : Unless you apologize, I shall punish you.
9. ‘Lest’ means ‘so that...not’, ‘for fear that’, and is in modern English followed by ‘should’.
Take care lest you should fall.
He ran fast lest he should miss the train.
10. ‘That’ should never be used before a sentence in the Direct Narration, or after a verb denoting a question in the Indirect Narration.
Incorrect : He said that “I am not feeling well.”
Correct : He said, “I am not feeling well.”
Incorrect : He asked that how I was feeling.
Correct : He asked how I was feeling.
Incorrect : He inquired that where was the school.
Correct : He inquired where the school was.
Incorrect : He asked me that whether Monika had gone.
Correct : He asked me whether Monika had gone.
11. ‘Since’. When it is used as a Conjunction, it is always followed by a Verb in the Simple Past Tense.
Incorrect : Three year passed since my cousin had died.
Correct : Three years have passed since my cousin died.
Incorrect : A month passed since he had come here.
Correct : A month has passed since he came here.
Incorrect : Two months passed since he had left school.
Correct : Two months have passed since he left school.

12. ‘Before’. When it is used as a Conjunction, with reference to some future event, it is never followed by a Verb in the Future Tense, even if the Verb in the Principal Clause is Future.
Incorrect : The plants will die before the rains will fall.
Correct : The plants will die before the rains fall or have fallen.

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